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Mitigation Best Practices

Mitigation Best Practices are stories, articles or case studies written about individuals, businesses or communities that undertook successful mitigation efforts with the intent of reducing or eliminating the physical or financial risks resulting from disasters.

Mitigation Best Practices are one of the principal methods of demonstrating that hazard mitigation efforts, including disaster preparedness, result in positive lessons learned and make significant impacts towards avoiding repetitive losses, financial hardship and loss of life.

Through these products, FEMA seeks to inspire and educate citizens to consider mitigation options by highlighting proven practices implemented by others in their homes and communities. It is our hope that visitors to this library will find relatable and informative techniques to reduce their risk and eliminate any hazards they may face.

WICHITA FALLS, TX - In July 2007, water from the Wichita River rose out of its banks, hurdled over the Duncan floodgates, and inundated 167 homes in Wichita Falls, Texas.

PIERCE COUNTY, WA - Since the early 1900s, approximately 90 miles of levees have been built in the Puyallup River system, which includes the Puyallup, Carbon, and White Rivers.

MORRISVILLE, PA - Protecting the safety and property of its residents is the first priority of any emergency manager. Bob Seward, Morrisville Borough EMC, knows this as well as anyone. He has been battling floods in the community for years.

JEFFERSON PARISH, LA – Protection from high winds and floodwaters is an ongoing challenge for people who live and work in Southeast Louisiana. Shielding operators of the area’s crucial pumping stations is critical, especially during major storm events.

PALM BEACH COUNTY, FL – When Hurricane Wilma hit Florida in October 2005, mitigation measures and emergency planning were put to the test at two water control pumping stations located at the edge of the Everglades.

MONROE, WI - Monroe is a city with just over 10,800 people. Situated about 12 miles from the Illinois state line, it is in the middle of the southern half of Green County, Wisconsin.

PUNTA GORDA, FL - When a disaster causes essential businesses such as gas stations, banks and grocery stores to shut down, even for a short time, the resulting problems can be dramatic for hard-hit communities.

LAKE WASHINGTON, WA - It was April 29, 1965, when the last major earthquake struck western Washington State. While aware of the possibility of another event, locals had been lax in their efforts to take action.

SANIBEL, FL - Hurricanes leave damaged structures, disrupted lives, and disordered routines in their aftermath.

SALINAS, PR - The community of La Margarita (303 homes) was developed in 1973 in an A-Zone floodplain along the west bank of the Nigua River. Since it was developed, it had been affected by four major floods.

CULPEPPER COUNTY, VA - When the Rapidan River in northern Virginia crested 30.5 feet above flood stage in June of 1995, devastating the Furloughs’ historic 145-year-old house, they knew what they would do: rebuild on their home site by the river, elevate it, and get flood insurance.

LONG ISLAND CITY, NY – Tom Paino is an architect with a New York City agency. He is also the owner of two side-by-side brownstones in the Queens neighborhood of Long Island City.

NEW SMYRNA BEACH, FL - Khalid Resheidat is a civil engineer for the City of New Smyrna Beach. His responsibilities include oversight of the city’s floodplain management issues, including a list of repetitive loss properties, or properties that had been repeatedly damaged from flooding.

REDLANDS, CA - The Redlands Unified School District has a year-round campus program resulting in virtually continuous high occupancy and use of all school facilities. The district has 21 buildings. Of these, 19 are schools and offices, and two are for support services.

REDLANDS, CA - Residents of the urban-wildland interface, an area encompassing more than a third of the City of Redlands, have a place to go where they can learn how to modify vegetation at their homes and use fire-resistant materials to make their homes fire safe.

NEW YORK – The scope of Sandy’s damage reinforced a basic principle of good government: coordination among all affected applicants and agencies to achieve a common goal.

ALBANY, NY – History is of particular importance to the estimated 350 residents of Gilbertsville. It is one of only a few villages nationwide to be placed, in its entirety, on the National Register of Historical Places.

ASCENSION PARISH, LA – As heavy rains from Hurricane Isaac poured down over the town of Sorrento in late August 2012, longtime resident Barry J.

ATLANTA, GA – The neighborhood of Drew Valley in DeKalb County is comprised of approximately 950 homes. The area initially was developed in the 1950s and has seen steady growth over time.

GALVESTON, TX - The Galveston County Daily News has written countless stories about the challenges and heroes of Hurricane Ike (2008). But there is one story they have refused to write: Their own. During the worst of Ike, they didn’t miss an edition.

RALSTON, PA - A bridge damaged by the January 1996 flooding cut the Town of Ralston, Pennsylvania, in half.

Debris had gathered at another bridge further upstream, forcing the creek through the Town and damaging the downstream bridge.

KANSAS - On May 3, 1999, a series of strong fronts moved through Oklahoma and Kansas, producing numerous tornadoes that tore through areas of both states considered parts of “Tornado Alley.” Two schools in Wichita were severely damaged.

JEDNOTA FLATS, PA - Jednota Flats in Lower Swatara Township floods almost every year. The area sits in a flood plain, and the homes endure up to ten feet of flood water during major rainstorms.

JEFFERSON COUNTY, AL – The EF-4 tornado that swept through a residential area in April 2011 shattered this suburban town. Residents were confused and disoriented as they searched for their homes. Pleasant Grove United Methodist Church became a beacon of hope.

NEW ORLEANS, LA - The hundreds of miles of wetlands along Louisiana’s coastline are a vital asset in the ongoing struggle to reduce the impact of powerful hurricanes and storms.

BLUFFTON, IN – Bluffton, an historic town set along the Wabash River, regularly pays a price for its bucolic setting: severe flooding.

MYSTIC, CT – The residents of coastal Connecticut recognize the value of investing in disaster resistance. Nor’easters and hurricanes bring destructive erosion, storm surge, downed utilities, and more. The communities know that “failing to plan is planning to fail.”

MARATHON, FL – When impacted by disasters, all communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) are required to determine whether damage to structures reaches a 50 percent or greater threshold.

PHILIPPI, WV - The terrain of West Virginia is very rugged, consisting of forested hills and mountains with narrow valleys. Due to the extremely narrow river valleys throughout most of the State, flooding is the most common cause of widespread disaster.

CABINS, WV - Rapid snow melts and heavy rains caused this area of West Virginia to suffer flood damages in 1949, 1985, and three times in 1996. Each subsequent event caused damages of increasing measures to residential properties.

PASS CHRISTIAN, MS - After suffering damage from Hurricane Lili and Tropical Storm Isidore in 2002, Don Blanchard, a retired aerospace engineer, and his wife Rose were determined to rebuild their house to withstand future hurricanes and floods.

NEOSHO, MO - Although far removed from both the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, the City of Neosho, had a long history of flooding.

SEATTLE, WA - Early in the 1990s, the City of Seattle, Washington, decided to do an overall survey to determine the weaknesses and integrity of several older buildings.

POQUOSON, VA - On September 16, 2003, Tim Morrison and his family finalized the purchase of their new home. Though eager to move in, the Morrison family had to wait until the renters currently occupying the house moved out.

LOUISIANA - Tropical Storm Allison flooded nearly all of south Louisiana with three months of rain in three days. The storm provided a new opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of recent mitigation investments by Federal, State and local government.

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, AZ - The neighborhood around Calle Azulejo, in the small community of Rio Rico, was designed in the 1960’s, before the dynamics of flash flooding was completely understood.

NOGALES, AZ – The residents of the Monte Carlo Subdivision have long dreaded the rain. Bordered on three sides by dry washes, the community frequently floods. Even a mild storm sends floodwaters into the streets, threatening homes and the produce warehouses at the bottom of a hill.

TALLAHASSEE, FL – A hurricane can leave a trail of devastation that includes loss of life and property. It can also have a major impact on the economy.

DUBLIN, OH – While this is a city with an excellent flood mitigation program in place, the original intent of Dublin’s City management was to preserve as much of the original landscape as possible.

GALVESTON, TX – The first floor of the historic Rosenberg Library located in Galveston, Texas, a barrier island 40 miles south of Houston, was severely damaged by Hurricane Ike storm surge.

WESTPORT, CT - Located along the shores of Western Long Island Sound, 26 percent of the residents of the Town of Westport live within the 100-year floodplain. Taking an integrated approach to mitigation, Westport implemented several concurrent mitigation strategies.

PENSACOLA, FL - Tom and Jennie Smith of Gulf Breeze, Florida, do not park their cars in an ordinary garage. The couple has to weave their cars between pilings that support the house above.

POWAY, CA - Ken and Bonnie Constable will never forget the terror they experienced the morning of October 23, 2007, when a wind driven wildfire came up to their front yard.

JEFFERSON CITY, MO - As severe weather hits at 3 a.m. and most people are nestled sound asleep, officials at Missouri’s State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) are confident that the citizens of Missouri are less vulnerable to disaster.

OCEAN COUNTY, NJ – Fred Harvey and his wife, Cecilia, were on vacation when Post-Tropical Cyclone Sandy struck New Jersey causing severe damage along the coast. While viewing a news story of the storm, they realized they were viewing the damage to their neighborhood in Holgate, New Jersey.

SAN BENITO, TX - “We felt very, very safe. It seemed like we were in a safety deposit box.” That’s how San Benito Mayor Joe Hernandez describes riding out Hurricane Dolly in his City Hall, Emergency Operations Center – protected by storm shutters.

MOORE, OK - Charles Atchley and his wife escaped unscathed after the 1999 Oklahoma tornado, but decided not to take their good fortune lightly. They took advantage of a FEMA tornado initiative ($2,000 rebate) and installed a below-ground safe room.

BAXTER COUNTY, AR – Entrepreneurs respond differently to the question, “What is success?” The term is not so easily define. Steve and Pam McCumber, an entrepreneurial couple in Norfork, Arkansas defines the term from personal experience.

NEWCASTLE, OK – One year after Ronda and Billy Johnson installed a safe room in their garage, their home was totally destroyed by a tornado. It proved a wise investment because that safe room saved their lives that day.


LONG BEACH, NY – When Michael Barnett purchased his house in Long Beach in 2000, it was with the understanding that the house had sustained flooding in the past.

RUIDOSO, NM - For 15 years, Judy Wilkie, an empty-nester from California, has made her home in the resort town of Ruidoso, New Mexico. She owns the Ruidoso Lodge Cabins, a vacation destination for summer and winter visitors.

FINDLAY, OH - Two days after the rampaging Blanchard River overflowed its banks last August and submerged downtown Findlay under more than a foot of water, Meg Rossilli stood in front of the restaurant she owns with her brother and her husband.

CALVERT COUNTY, MD – The Rockhill property was situated immediately at the water's edge of the Chesapeake Bay and within the V-Zone (elevation 8 foot based on National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD)). This portion of Calvert County was included in the Federally declared disaster in 1996.

REEDY, WV - One person described the sounds of a thunderstorm at night as nothing short of “horrifying” to the regularly flood-stricken residents of Reedy, a small community nestled in northern Roane County.

ALTON, NH – The floods of 1990, January 1996 and October 1996 have repeatedly eroded the road and ditches in the southern section of the Town of Alton in Belknap County.

COOKE COUNTY, TX Faced with a long local history of dangerous tornadoes, Cooke County officials wanted to help residents protect themselves in the future.

MOORE, OK –When a massive tornado was sweeping across central Oklahoma on May 20, 2013, Mindy Chaddock and nine family members quickly took refuge in her mother’s underground safe room. The house above them was reduced to rubble, but the family survived.


POMEROY, OH - Salisbury Township is home to the river-crossing town of Pomeroy, population 2,200, near the southeastern corner of the state where U.S. Route 33 crosses the Ohio River into West Virginia.

SARASOTA, FL - Florida's hurricane shelter deficit and a State initiated shelter construction survey resulted in an ambitious 9-year Shelter Retrofit Program in Sarasota County.

PULASKI COUNTY, AR – Founded in 1850, the Arkansas School for the Deaf (ASD) has become a leader in the field of deaf education nationwide.

LACOMBE, LA - As Category Five Hurricane Katrina approached the southeast Louisiana coastline, the Louisiana Heart Hospital (LHH) prepared for the worst.

OKLAHOMA - On May 3, 1999, more than 70 tornadoes tore through Kansas and Oklahoma in the worst tornado outbreak in a generation. As a result, in Oklahoma alone more than 44 people died and almost 800 were injured. Approximately 90 percent of the buildings damaged were single-family dwellings.

OKLAHOMA CITY, OK - Residents of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area wonder each year what May weather will bring. In May 1999, multiple tornadoes left 44 dead and more than 8,000 buildings damaged or destroyed.

TUSCALOOSA, AL – William Blakeney grew up in Tuscaloosa County and is well aware of the effects of disasters in the area. In an effort to prepare for disasters like the tornadoes in mid and late April 2011, he built a safe room in his grandparents’ home.

VICTORIA, TX – Nearly 400 evacuees with nowhere else to go in Victoria, Texas, sheltered inside a 168-foot wide steel-reinforced tornado/hurricane safe room the day Hurricane Harvey barreled into Texas.

EL RENO, OK – A clear sky was hard to come by in El Reno, Oklahoma, on May 31, 2013.

HIRAM, ME – Along the Saco River on River Road, the river bank eroded within 2 feet of the roadway's edge. The shoulder was too narrow even for guard rails. Northbound traffic in the winter was in danger of sliding directly into the river. Each heavy rain event made the situation worse.

MILLER’S ISLAND, MD - As Hurricane Isabel traveled up the Chesapeake Bay, the Peytons sat on their deck and watched the water rise, higher and higher towards their elevated home. They invited Carol’s parents to come from their home next door to watch the storm.

CHEHALIS, WA - Karen McGhee and her husband Terry have rented multiple homes in the City of Chehalis, Washington over the years. In 1990, they sat in their hilltop house and watched as floodwaters rose throughout the town below them.

ARNOLD, MO - The City of Arnold (pop. 20,082) is a thriving, prosperous community located just 20 miles south of St. Louis where the Meramec River joins the Mississippi. The Meramec, flowing south, forms the eastern border of the city.

SAN LEON, TX - Before starting construction of their waterfront home in San Leon, Texas, George and Diana Click spent time researching safe building practices.

MISSISSIPPI - Repetitive loss sites have been prevalent in several flood prone counties across the State.

CAÑON CITY, CO – Cañon City officials completed an acquisition project after being motivated by a home that was subject to frequent flooding.


The 2011 acquisition was funded by FEMA’s repetitive flood claims program.


ALBANY, NY – Repairs to Mallet Hill Road in the Town of Stratford, Fulton County, damaged during the June 2006 flooding were designed to a higher standard. Using the higher standard may have made them less vulnerable to future flooding.

GARLAND, NC - The Williams' home had experienced two episodes of flooding due to hurricanes. In 1984 flood waters entered the house soaking duct work, all flooring and carpets as well as damaging utilities and appliances. The family was displaced from their home for two months.

Catahoula Parish, LA – Catahoula Parish has had a tumultuous relationship with the Ouachita and Black Rivers as these rivers are prone to high-velocity flooding. Soil erosion occurs naturally, but certain factors such as water and wind can accelerate, and worsen, its effects.

OKLAHOMA CITY, OK - On May 9, 2003, tornados swooped across Oklahoma City’s “Tornado Alley.” The tornados path was virtually the same as the one that struck 4 years prior. Oklahoma has historically been subject to destructive and deadly tornados and high winds.

ROSEVILLE, CA – The City of Roseville in Placer County, California, has experienced repetitive flooding in 1986, 1995, and 1997 from several small creeks.

SYLMAR, CA - On November 15, 2008, the Sayer Fire engulfed the Oakridge Mobile Home Park, a beautiful, gated community in Sylmar. Of the park’s 600 homes, 480 were destroyed. The fire was so hot that fire hoses melted into the concrete.

SACRAMENTO, CA – The homeowners in a low-lying section of Rio Linda used to worry about flooding whenever the winter storm season arrived. When heavy rains hit the neighborhood, the normally benign Dry Creek overflowed its banks, threatening the row of ranch-style houses on U Street.

CAMERON COUNTY, TX - In the summer of 2008 when Hurricane Dolly swamped the old neighborhood, now largely vacant ground, she unleashed nearly a foot of rain over Antonia Iberra’s old home, but nobody was home.

NORMAN COUNTY, MN - The repetitive flooding of the Red River Valley has caused Norman County residents and local government officials to place a high priority on flood protection. Partnerships were formed to provide solutions to keep farmers in business and communities viable.

RICHMOND, VA - When the owners of a new Buffalo Wild Wings Grill and Bar franchise considered opening in the historic Shockoe Bottom entertainment district, they knew the area was prone to flooding. Their decision to make the building flood resistant soon paid off.

CONECUH COUNTY, AL – Conecuh County Engineer, Winston Foshee, knew that without preventive action the County was facing the potential for failure of seven bridges.

HIRAM, ME - One of Maine’s most pristine rivers, the Saco River, runs through the bucolic region of southwestern Maine. Bisected by the Saco River is the small Maine village of Hiram. Here, alongside the Saco runs River Road and its long history of flooding.

VOLUSIA COUNTY, FL - Imagine reading, writing, arithmetic, wood, dust, and hammers in the classroom. Picture a home model built to withstand 150 mph winds. Envision DeLand High School students building these model houses. Think of instructors teaching students how to build more secure homes.

SOUTHAMPTON, VA - For 30 years, Robert and Gale Stradley’s home escaped the intermittent threat of flooding. However, when Hurricane Floyd struck in September 1999, the couple was not so lucky. “Floyd was a very, very different storm.

MOBILE, AL - Over the years, Mobile has experienced a number of major hurricanes. For this reason, a major undertaking was employed to build a hurricane resistant structure when building the Mobile Convention Center.

DICKINSON, TX — When the floodwaters receded from Texas’ Gulf Coast in September 2017, the damage from Hurricane Harvey was massive and far-reaching.

NEW JERSEY – Mr. Robert Villee’s home is in a residential neighborhood of Long Branch that is prone to flooding from the nearby river and marshland.


LINCOLN, NE - In January 2000, the Nebraska Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) approved Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) funds for the City of Lincoln’s Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP), Theresa Street location.

TULSA, OK - Neighbor for Neighbor, Inc. (NfN) has been a very active private, non-profit organization in the City of Tulsa since 1967, with the purpose of serving those in need in the Tulsa community.

HUNTSVILLE, AL - John’s Photo Mart, a small camera and photo processing shop had been beset by flooding problems for years.

OCEAN COUNTY, NJ – As Hurricane Sandy moved across the Atlantic Ocean in late October 2012, coastal New Jersey residents prepared for the storm’s impact by moving their cars and boarding up windows and doors.

ALBANY, NY – Perennial flood damage to a section of Washout Road in the Town of Glenville, located in Schenectady County, has been overcome thanks to a federal-state policy goal that provides extra funding to mitigate against future damages to public infrastructure.

BRACKEN COUNTY, KY – For motorists negotiating a narrow section of Old Highway 19 along Little Turtle Creek in Bracken County, Kentucky, the trip will be a lot safer now that the road bank along the creek has been reinforced.

WASHINGTON, DC - The nation's model building codes have a greater impact on the quality of construction and how structures will withstand the forces of nature than any other FEMA program.

BILOXI, MS - In their efforts to help in the recovery process from Hurricane Katrina, the Community Education Outreach (CEO) Group of the U.S.

POINSETT COUNTY, AR – Property acquisition (buyout) is one of many forms of hazard mitigation. It is also the most permanent form. It removes people from harm's way forever.

ALLEGANY COUNTY, MD - Allegany County’s mitigation initiative contributed to the long-term endeavors by earmarking funds to relocate units for an acquisition project. Despite numerous setbacks, the project reached a successful conclusion due to the County and its contractors.

CRAWFORD COUNTY, WI – Before, during, and after flooding, employees of the Crawford County Highway Shop in Gays Mills, Wisconsin, spent hours and days moving vehicles, heavy equipment, and computers, and sandbagging and raising things off the ground, all in an effort to protect their facility fro

SHADY SPRING, WV - Heavy rains during the fall of 2003 saturated the ground in Shady Spring with over 5 inches of rain in less than a month. When 2.4 inches additional inches fell in one day, the crawlspace under David and Dwila Kimbrells’ home flooded.

TILLAMOOK, OR – During the late fall of 2006, many of the businesses along Highway 101 in north Tillamook, Oregon were inundated with flood waters. More than a month later, some business owners were still shoveling mud and debris from inside their shops.

MORGAN COUNTY, WV - Residents in various Morgan County locations along the Potomac River and its tributaries have suffered repeated flood damage. These rural locations experienced major floods in November 1985 and again in January and September 1996.

WASHINGTON - When a community is affected by flooding, the people who live there have their lives turned upside-down. Forced to abandon their homes in order to escape rising floodwaters, they must go through the lengthy and exhausting process of cleanup, repair, and rebuilding.

BAXTER COUNTY, AR – For years, the mere mention of the word “tornado” made her extremely nervous. Yet, on February 5, 2008, when a tornado visited the town of Gassville, Arkansas, Jeanann Quattlebaum felt a certain calmness.

LYONS, CO – When the waters of the St. Vrain River overflowed their banks in September 2013, the rushing water ripped out huge trees, took out bridges, created new channels through parks, and rushed through some downtown neighborhoods, ravishing homes in Lyons.


BOULDER, CO – A stone wall and a little extra elevation saved Mark Schueneman’s home along Left Hand Creek during the September 2013 floods. Schueneman’s house was surrounded by damaged residences in Boulder County, one of the hardest hit areas.

LOS ALAMOS, NM - When John and Cindia Hogan bought their home in 1994, they did so knowing that a major wildfire might occur in the Santa Fe National Forest that backs up to their property. John Hogan, a physical scientist with the U.S.

RUTHERFORD COUNTY, TN – Although public awareness of disasters is heightened in certain months of the year, there is never a wrong time to prepare for disasters.

BENTON COUNTY, OR - Electrical power outages are a familiar experience when winter storms bring high wind, heavy snow, ice, and falling trees. All of these can cause severe damage to transmission lines, poles, and transformers.


BAY ST. LOUIS, MS – Storms shutters and other mitigation measures helped the Hancock County Senior Center survive Hurricane Katrina (2005) and serve as a safe haven for the members of the community for 88 days after the storm.

JENSEN BEACH, FL – In October 2005, Hurricane Wilma’s high winds tore through the east end of Jensen Beach, Florida, a quiet coastal town in Martin County. The winds ripped off part of a marina roof, collapsed buildings, and demolished a gas station.

LAKE COUNTY, TN – After tornadoes devastated two schools in nearby cities at the beginning of summer vacation, school board officials in Ridgely, Tennesssee began revising tornado safety plans for Lake County schools.

MOORHEAD, MN – Moorhead has seen its share of flooding over the past two decades. In 1994, 1997, and 2002, the City of Moorhead took part in FEMA’s Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) to mitigate flooding and reduce future flood losses.

GULFPORT, MS – On August 29, 2005, with Hurricane Katrina’s devastating winds blowing outside, emergency personnel at the Harrison County Emergency Operations Center (EOC) were safe and secure thanks to storm shutters protecting the building’s windows.

NORTH CAROLINA - A problem with mitigating natural disasters is knowing what threats are most likely and what can be done to protect against them. Another problem is thinking, "Disasters only happen to other people. It won't happen to me."

NORTH CAROLINA - A problem with mitigating natural disasters is knowing what threats are most likely and what can be done to protect against them. Another problem is thinking, "Disasters only happen to other people. It won't happen to me."


GUADALUPE COUNTY, TX – Gilbert Acuna, a pharmacist, and his wife, Angie, a social worker, wanted to live closer to their daughters - three in San Antonio and one in Austin.

PENSACOLA, FL - Harry and Sheila Palmer live on Perdido Key, Escambia County’s wispythin barrier island in Florida’s panhandle.

GRAPEVINE, TX – Oak Grove Park’s Ballfield Complex, located in Grapevine, Texas, was built in the 1960s and is home to local baseball and soccer teams.

PARK COUNTY, MT- Park County experienced a record flood on the Yellowstone River in June 1996. The river maintained a very high flow for over a week, causing massive bank erosion and floods in a number of houses.

CAMRBIA, WI - Cambria, population 792, is one of many pleasant spots in the middle of Wisconsin corn country, about 33 miles north of Madison. It is quiet, clean, and well managed by experienced and energetic individuals.

ALLEGANY COUNTY, NY – A mitigation project to protect a water supply pipe in Allegany County has likely paid for itself at least three times since it was completed.

PENSACOLA, FL – Pensacola was hit hard after Hurricane Ivan barreled down on the Gulf Coast in September 2004 when the storm knocked out Sacred Heart Hospital’s electricity.

ST. GEORGE, UT – For centuries, the problems of sandy, easily erodible soils have plagued the Utah communities of St. George and Santa Clara along the banks of the Virgin and Santa Clara Rivers.

CHARLESTON, WV - Many West Virginia homeowners and businesses took steps after floods to make their property more secure from flood damage. Some of those efforts were tested in the latest floods and landslides that began Memorial Day weekend 2004.

CHANUTE, KS - Hans Harold and his wife, Donna, woke up around 4:30 a.m. on June 30, 2007 to find their house surrounded by water.

LAWRENCE COUNTY, TN – Plagued with floods for nearly 200 years, Lawrenceburg, Tennessee, a city with approximately 11,000 residents, has had its share of flood damage to homes, roads, and public buildings.

HOUSTON, TX – As a leading research institution with a distinctive commitment to undergraduate education, Rice University aspires to path-breaking research, unsurpassed teaching and contributions to the betterment of our world.

ERIE, CO – A small mitigation project to repair a culvert at Erie Municipal Airport proved to be cost effective in the wake of the September 2013 flood.

BROWN COUNTY, MN – The City of Springfield in southwestern Minnesota has a long history of flooding from the Big Cottonwood River. One flood-prone neighborhood experienced flooding nearly every decade since the 1940s.

TAYLOR COUNTY, TX – If only the people of Merkel, Texas knew then what they know now.

“Then” was before extensive rainfall last August flooded a neighborhood, damaging 60 homes that never had flood damage before.

NORTHPORT, AL – The Northport Housing Authority’s mission is to provide decent and affordable housing in a safe and secure living environment for low- and moderate- income residents.

NORTH CAROLINA - The State of North Carolina, FEMA, and numerous other Federal, State and local agencies entered a Cooperating Technical Partner (CTP) agreement September 15, 2000—the one-year anniversary of Hurricane Floyd.

BASTROP, TX – On Sunday, September 4, 2011, a firestorm engulfed Bastrop County, Texas, destroying 1,688 homes, burning more than 34,000 acres, and claiming two lives.

OLYMPIA, WA - On February 28, 2001, Mrs. Mallinger was at home when she felt shaking and realized that there was an earthquake. During the two phases of the earthquake, books, glassware, CDs, pottery and some pictures fell.

VINTON, IA - Anthony and Jackie Behounek live along the Cedar River outside the City of Vinton, Iowa. When a record flood in May 2008 hit the rural area, the Behouneks left their home to stay with Jackie’s mother.

BAKER COUNTY, GA - In 1994, Tropical Storm Alberto devastated central and southwestern Georgia. The river communities of Newton and Albany were among the hardest hit by floods from the storm.

NEW RICHMOND, OH - New Richmond, a small, historic Ohio village about 20 miles upriver from Cincinnati on the Ohio River, is no stranger to flooding. Its flooding history is most eloquently told in pictures.

TEXAS – The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is constructing new rest area facilities throughout the state to provide more services and a safer experience for travelers.

OREGON - In an effort to become more resilient from natural hazards, communities in Oregon have begun a large-scale endeavor aimed at pre-disaster mitigation.

OKLAHOMA - In Spring, travelers throughout Oklahoma learn ways to decrease their risks for damage when severe weather comes to their neighborhoods.

HILO, HI – Tsunamis are as much a part of the Hawaiian history as the islands themselves and the deadliest of all Hawaiian natural disasters.

CHARLEVOIX COUNTY, MI - With over 2,700 vehicles using it daily, Thumb Lake Road is the second-busiest road in Charlevoix County. Previously the road’s overpass of the Boyne River was a site of continual flooding, but it was restructured to ensure safer travel and eliminate repetitive repairs.

OREGON - The Cascadia Subduction Zone Fault is a long sloping fault located off the West coast of the United States which stretches from mid-Vancouver to Northern California. As a result of its enormous size, this fault is capable of producing devastating earthquakes.

PACIFIC GROVE, CA - In 1991, the Pacific Grove Fire Department experienced a firerelated death of an elderly resident who did not have an operable smoke detector in her residence. As a result of this tragedy, the Pacific Grove Fire Department initiated Operation Smoke Alarm.

PASCAGOULA, MS - Robert and Sandra Harris safely waited out Hurricane Katrina at their son’s home. They were stunned at what they found after the storm when they traveled 20 miles back to their neighborhood in Pascagoula.

HARRISON COUNTY, IA - In 1975, Dan and Dale Hoyt were living in Dale’s grandparents’ farmhouse in Missouri Valley, Iowa. One day in May, at home with her three-year-old and two-month-old sons, Dale watched a television report as a tornado struck Omaha, Nebraska, some 15 miles from their house.

OCEAN COUNTY, NJ – Wrecked and ruined homes and shipwrecked boats were the haunting images embedded in the minds of many residents of New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy ravaged the coast in late October 2012.

AUSTIN, MN - In the spring of 2000, floodwaters in Austin, Minnesota, crested at 23.4 feet, the highest on record. But far fewer homes received flood damage than in the multiple flood events of the last 30 years.

FORT COLLINS, CO – On July 28, 1997, Fort Collins was devastated by the Spring Creek flood that claimed the lives of five people and injured 54 more. Causing more than $200 million in damages, it destroyed 200 homes and damaged 1,500 homes and businesses.

NEW ORLEANS, LA - An extensive drainage system and new drainage projects within the city for the past 80 years have caused subsidence and turned the city's overall topography into a saucer configuration.

NEW JERSEY – Four of the last five years have been difficult for New Jersey residents along the Passaic River Basin. Their homes have been flooded over and over again, which makes them the most flood prone area in the entire state.

NEW HAVEN, VT - Heavy rainfall brought flooding and damage to New Haven’s River Road and also washed unwanted sediments into the Lake Champlain watershed. The summer of 2006 brought six floods in a row. The town recognized the problem and searched for an affordable solution.

BUTLER COUNTY, KS - Butler County's Hazard Mitigation plan identified tornadoes as its highest rated hazard. Close behind were flooding and hazardous materials. Also identified in the plan was the need to effectively and efficiently communicate with special populations before a crisis strikes.

WYOMING COUNTY, WV - Like many locations in West Virginia, floods have hit Wyoming County over and over again. But the latest floods and mudslides that began Memorial Day weekend spared more than 50 homes in the county because of measures taken to move them out of harm’s way.

JEFFERSON COUNTY, MO - An often overlooked aspect in National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) policies has helped many homeowners in the State of Missouri finance required improvements that will save them from significant damage in future flooding events.

JAMUL, CA – In October 2007, fire surrounded the home of Bob and Suzy Bullock, who live approximately 25 miles east of San Diego near Jamul. They evacuated, and when they came back they found their home intact – protected by all the mitigation measures they took.

DARLINGTON, WI - Located in the southwestern corner of Wisconsin, this rural city (population of 2,398) was founded beside the Pecatonica River and officially given the name of Darlington in 1869.

LIBERTY, ME - Lake St. George in the Town of Liberty is reported by local officials to be one of the cleanest lakes in Maine. If you were in the area on a sunny summer day you would find as many as 150 people swimming, fishing, and picnicking on its banks.

HARRIS COUNTY, TX – As a leading research institution with a distinctive commitment to undergraduate education, Rice University aspires to path-breaking research, unsurpassed teaching, and contributions to the betterment of our world.

NAPA, CA – In 1998, Paul Faulk purchased a historic home in Napa. It was a slightly elevated house with a four-foot crawl space. When new flood maps were developed for the city, Mr.

WAYNE COUNTY, MO - It’s a long way from the terror of a flood to a happy park, but that’s what’s happening in Piedmont, Missouri where a cooperative effort is moving people out of harm’s way and saving lives and taxpayer dollars.

NAPA, CA - In the flood-prone valley of the Napa River lies the world-class traveler’s destination of Napa, California. Over the span of 36 years (1961-1997), a total of 19 floods caused more than $542 million in residential property damage alone.

NEBRASKA - High winds and ice storms are common hazards in the plains of Nebraska. Such hazards can cause a transmission system to collapse as one transmission line structure (power pole) fails, “triggering” adjacent structures to topple in succession like a string of dominos.

CALIFORNIA - Following the Northridge earthquake in 1994, FEMA provided funding to the California Institute of Technology, the California Division of Mines and Geology, and the USGS to upgrade earthquake monitoring in southern California.

MIDDLESEX COUNTY, MA – Despite 10 days of record-breaking flooding across northeastern Massachusetts in March 2010, the city of Melrose “dodged the bullet,” thanks to the new drainage system for the city’s Ell Pond.

RANCHO SANTA FE, CA – More than 2,460 multi-million-dollar houses, built to the highest construction standards possible including expansive defensible space around and within the home development areas, survived extremely well when the Witch Fire stormed through the area in October 2007.

MIDDLESEX COUNTY, MA – The city of Melrose took to heart the lessons of the “Mother’s Day storm” of 2006, when several feet of water inundated streets, school yards, and playing fields, causing damages to residences and businesses.

MIDDLESEX COUNTY, MA – Flooding and the closure of East Street, just east of the town center in Tewksbury, Massachusetts, has been an annual – and in some years an even more frequent – event.

ORANGE BEACH, AL - Following Hurricane Ivan's landfall Sept. 15, 2004, Alabama homeowners with houses built to a higher-building standard were rewarded with significantly less damage.

ELLICOTTVILLE, NY - The configuration of the Martha Street Bridge abutments and channel caused floodwaters to spill into Ellicottville during repeated flood events.

ALEXANDRIA, VA - Christine and Ron Redon had a close encounter with flooding when the Hurricane Isabel storm surge invaded their New Alexandria neighborhood. They heeded the call to evacuate and were not at home to watch as the water rose in their neighborhood during the dead of night.

TILLAMOOK COUNTY, OR - The February 1996 floods devastated areas of Oregon's Tillamook County bordering the Pacific Ocean. The Nehalem River reached 1.6 feet above base flood elevation. This area of the county is a watershed to the sea for three major rivers.

HARRIS COUNTY, TX ‒ During Memorial Day weekend in 2015, flood warnings were issued in many parts of Texas as record amounts of torrential rains were unleashed on already saturated grounds.

OKALOOSA COUNTY, FL - Dan Sluka and his wife, Dottie, moved from Detroit, Michigan, to the Gulf Coast of Florida in 2001 after building their dream home in a Special Flood Hazard Area a few miles east of Pensacola, with a view of the Santa Rosa Sound and the Gulf of Mexico beyond.

WASHINGTON COUNTY, OR - On May 12, 2000, the Unified Sewerage Agency of Washington County, Oregon (USA), signed a Partnership Agreement with FEMA under the Cooperating Technical Communities (CTC) initiative (now the Cooperating Technical Partners [CTP] initiative).

HAMPSHIRE COUNTY, WV - In 1993 the Unger family had purchased a former vacation cabin to use as a permanent residence to escape renting. They had, at the time, two infants and were glad to get affordable housing. The salesperson assured them that the structure was out of the floodplain.

MINNESOTA - High windstorms and ice storms have cause overhead power lines in Minnesota to become hazardous and at risk of failure. Statewide, the ice storms are heavy enough to break the lines and the windstorms are high enough to blow down the lines.

NORTH DAKOTA - When the Red River of the North flooded in April of 1997, several pieces of very costly equipment were submerged in the basement of a building at University of North Dakota. The equipment was immobile due to its weight and size.

SAN FRANCISCO, CA - The University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center Parnassus serves as the main campus for UCSF’s medical program, as well as a Children’s Hospital, several research labs, and the center for the Dental and Nursing programs.

GUAM - Dawn Santos is no stranger to disasters. After all, she lived in Guam for 15 years. "I lived through several typhoons," Santos recalls. But when Typhoon Omar swept through the island in 1992, the Santos family lost everything. Their house and possessions were destroyed.

TANGIER ISLAND, VA - As a third generation Tangier Island resident, Sarah Crockett is no stranger to storm tides and the damages they create. “With [Hurricane] Floyd [1999] the water got into my house, ruined the carpets and floor and stuff.

HENRY, LA – Five years ago, when Craig Lee began planning the construction of his Vermilion Parish home, he learned he would be required to elevate his new house more than eight feet above grade in order to receive a building permit.

ABERDEEN, OH - Ohio River flooding is nothing new to the Village of Aberdeen and its population of 545. Before March 1997, the historic riverfront community about 50 miles east of Cincinnati had lived through five major 20th century flood events (1913, '36, '37, '59 and '96).

SANTA BARBARA, CA - On the morning of January 10, 1995, the staff of the United Way arrived at their facility in downtown Santa Barbara to find 3 feet of water in their offices.

LAFAYETTE COUNTY, MS - The University of Mississippi, located within the New Madrid seismic risk zone, has a number of buildings subject to seismic risk. These buildings, at any given time, house a large number of students/faculty, and are all closely located within a high density area.

ATLANTIC COUNTY, NJ - Venice Park is an unusual island neighborhood in northeastern Atlantic City, New Jersey. It is surrounded by a waterway known locally as the Beach Thoroughfare on three sides, and on its remaining side by the Penrose Canal.

SAN DIEGO, CA – Herb Peters is convinced that ice plant placed on three sides of his Rancho Bernardo home early in 2007 was a major reason his 1,500-square-foot house did not burn when the Witch Fire roared through his neighborhood during the morning hours of October 21, 2007.

VALMEYER, IL - Prior to 1993, the Village of Valmeyer was a small farming community in southwestern Illinois. The Village is located 5 miles east of the Mississippi River, just south of St. Louis, Missouri. The Village is protected by levees and, consequently, has rare but extreme flood events.

INDEPENDENCE, MO - For the City of Independence, removing power lines from utility poles and burying them underground is not just a matter of aesthetics; it’s also good business.

MICHIGAN - On July 2, 1997, a series of tornadoes and straight-line winds resulted in several deaths and millions of dollars damage in southeast Michigan. Communities were faced with downed power lines, blocked streets, downed and damaged trees, and mountains of tree debris.

DENVER, CO - On May 17, 1999, Denver’s Urban Drainage and Flood Control District (UDFCD) became one of the first partners to sign an agreement with FEMA under the Cooperating Technical Communities (CTC) initiative (now Cooperating Technical Partners [CTP] initiative).

DUPAGE COUNTY, IL - As a large county in Illinois with an active water resources management program, DuPage County has developed its own, highly advanced methodology for modeling the flood hazard.

ASHEVILLE, NC - When the Swannanoa River broke its banks and swamped the Biltmore business district of Asheville, N.C. in early Sept. 2004, tough new building ordinances kept a number of businesses high and dry.

NORTH DAKOTA - During the spring flood of 1997, much of the damage was caused by sewer back-up after the city's lift station failed. This resulted in tremendous damage to personal property in lower levels of buildings throughout the city, including the University of North Dakota.

DAUPHIN ISLAND, AL - Only a year after they were built, the homes at 1301 and 1303 Chaumont experienced their first flood damage from Hurricane Camille in August 1969. After years of repetitive losses, however, Hurricane Ivan (2004) did no further damage to either home.

MOORE, OK –When Jerry and Linda Woods bought a home with a safe room, they made their neighbors aware that they were also welcome to use it.


ST. BERNARD PARISH, LA – Life on the bayou isn’t easy. But despite the hazards, hardships and hurricanes, the Assevado family cannot imagine living anywhere else.

MARSHALL COUNTY, AL – On April 27, 2011, widespread damage was reported in Guntersville, AL, with trees down and some residents trapped in vehicles or homes. Trees and power lines blocked roadways as tornadoes ranging from EF-0 to EF-4 struck Marshall County.

ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FL - For several weeks after Hurricane Ivan in 2004, and then again after Hurricane Dennis in 2005, Pensacola Beach residents and visitors got a free ride – through the Bob Sikes Toll Facility, that is.

WASHINGTON COUNTY, UT – The tiny hamlet of Gunlock, Utah, is tucked out of the way on an isolated, rural road. To the north are the towns of Veyo and Enterprise.

TILLAMOOK COUNTY, OR - The February 1996 floods resulted in the death of 700 dairy animals on the farms in the Tillamook floodplain. Almost every farm lost cows.

MOORE HAVEN, FL – When Hurricane Wilma crossed Glades County on Oct. 24, 2005, tropical winds met with cold air masses and intensified the storm.

SOUTH PADRE ISLAND, TX – Richard Ehrlich, a South Padre Island building inspector and builder, knew all too well what Hurricane Dolly could do to the three housing units he had built on this trendy barrier island.

LOUISVILLE, KY - With the largest population in the state of Kentucky, the City of Louisville is the economic engine for Jefferson County. Located along the Ohio River, the city has a long history of flooding.

LONOKE COUNTY, AR – Residents in several subdivisions located in the City of Cabot kept a watchful eye on their property during heavy rainfall. All too often water would find its way out of ditches and other low-lying areas and would creep into yards and homes in the area.

HOLYWOOD, FL - In a state rocked by one powerful hurricane season after another, the leadership of the Seminole Tribe of Florida has taken numerous steps to protect its members.

NORWAY, ME - In the Town of Norway on Town Farm Road, just off its intersection with Route 118, there is a stream that runs across the foot of the road. The culverts under the road continually overflowed making the road impassable. Six times in eight years the road was shut down.

FREDERICKSBURG, IN - The small community of Fredericksburg lies along the Blue River in southeastern Indiana, 20 miles northwest of Louisville, Kentucky.

TUSCALOOSA COUNTY, AL – The Alabama-Arkansas–Mississippi tornado outbreak affected portions of the southern United States from Arkansas to Alabama on November 23rd and –November 24th,, 2001, with additional tornadoes recorded in Louisiana.

TUSCALOOSA COUNTY, AL – As the State of Alabama began recovery efforts from the April 2011 storms deemed one of the deadliest tornado outbreaks in the history of the South, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region 4 developed partnerships with organizations within the state to foster the

NAPA VALLEY, CA – Napa Valley produces some of the best American wines, but until flood mitigation techniques were implemented in 1997, there was great risk involved. In 1986 and 1995, major floods threatened the valley’s 200 wineries.

TOM GREEN COUNTY, TX – NOAA’S National Weather Service (NWS) reports that 80 percent of flood-related deaths in South Texas occur as a result of people driving through low-water crossings, walking along the banks of flooded areas, or playing in floodwaters.

TEXAS - In June 2001, Tropical Storm Allison ravaged 31 counties in Texas, including Harris County. The storm caused $5 billion in damage in the City of Houston, the county seat of Harris County.

HARRIS COUNTY, TX - Tropical Storm Allison descended on southeast Texas in June of 2001 and dumped 37 inches of rain in 12 hours, claiming 23 lives.

DANVILLE BOROUGH, PA - Sitting on the banks of the Susquehanna River, Danville Borough has seen its share of floods. Following heavy rains, the river surges and rushing waters threaten the town.

ATLANTIC COUNTY, NJ - The project is located in the West Atlantic City portion of Egg Harbor Township and consisted of dune stabilization in three sections of shoreline along the north shore of Lake’s Bay, a large tidal embayment behind the barrier beach located south of Ventnor

VINTON, VA - The primary risk in Virginia's Roanoke Valley is from flooding caused by tropical storms and localized thunderstorms and heavy rains. The Roanoke River and numerous smaller streams traverse the valley, which is surrounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains.

ALASKA - Each day, the Trans-Alaska oil pipeline carries one million barrels of oil, about 17% of the domestic oil supply for the United States, valued at about $25 million.

SURFSIDE BEACH, TX — It’s smart to know when to say, “Enough is enough.” That was Mayor Larry Davison’s assessment after Hurricane Ike struck Surfside Beach on September 13, 2008. He’s glad his town knew when to pull back from its beloved beachfront.

ALLEGANY COUNTY, MD - This project represents the second phase in Allegany County government's plan to remove residential properties from the 100-year floodplain along Willis Creek. Severe flooding in 1984 resulted in 29 homes receiving serious damages from water.

PIMA COUNTY, AZ - Just north of Tucson, Arizona, Mt. Lemmon -- a “sky island” -- rises nine thousand feet above the desert. The landscape morphs from desert to alpine in the twenty mile drive to the top.

MINNESOTA – A tornado and several windstorms caused severe damage in Itasca State Park, located in northwestern Minnesota, and has a half a million visitors each year. The storm damaged and blew down numerous pine trees throughout the park.

MATANUSKA-SUSITNA, AK - The Miller’s Reach Wildland Fire destroyed or damaged nearly 450 structures, and caused extensive damage to public infrastructure in June 1996.

ORANGE COUNTY, CA - On the morning of Sunday, March 11, 2007, fire erupted at Windy Ridge along the 241 Toll Road in Orange County. The area, known for its brush covered hills, canyons and deep ravines, was a tinderbox and the fire fanned by the Santa Ana winds spread rapidly.

BIDDEFORD, ME - During large rain events, West Street, a major road in Biddeford, has had to be shut down. The area of West Street by the Wilcox Pond outflow culvert overtops during these events causing washout and structural damage to the road bed.

LILBURN, GA – Still recovering from a historic drought that began in 2006, few Georgia residents have had flash flooding on their mind, let alone flood insurance.

DUNCAN, OK - The year 2007 went into the history books as the sixth wettest for Duncan, Oklahoma. Residents saw five major floods with three of them greater than 100-year flood event. The flood on June 28 resulted in a sewer main failure.

CHICAGO, IL - Looking out the window as one flies into O'Hare airport, a sea of rooftops fills the Chicago landscape. And off those rooftops, much rain does run - straight into the city's sewer system.

DAVIDSON COUNTY, TN – Wimpole Drive, a street that stretches along Mill Creek in southeast Nashville, Tennesee, is tailor-made for the property acquisition option of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA’s) Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP).

WINCHESTER, MA - Major storm events repeatedly overwhelmed the culverts at Sylvester Avenue and at Canal Street in Winchester, Massachusetts. A 50-year storm event caused flooding and erosion of the culverts in 1996, and in 1998 a 25-year storm damaged the locations.

WEST PALM BEACH, FL - Vaulting walls of glass surround the entire lobby of the Alexander W. Dreyfoos Jr. Concert Hall at the Kravis Center for the Performing Arts in West Palm Beach.

WAKE COUNTY, NC – On April 16, 2011, Chris Crew was at home in Wake County, NC, looking out of his second floor window wondering where his wife and daughter were.

DARLINGTON, WI - Several communities in the State of Wisconsin experience repetitive flooding. The City of Darlington is one that has successfully reduced its risk through a variety of flood mitigation measures.

WISCONSIN - In 2005, the agency charged with helping safeguard the State of Wisconsin against the impacts of all types of disasters initiated a significant undertaking: to conduct a 100-year flood risk-and-loss estimate that could apply to the entire state.

BELLE CHASSE, LA – Hurricane Isaac’s winds, rain and flooding were a big test for the new Plaquemines Parish Government Administrative Headquarters. The building, purchased shortly after Hurricane Katrina in 2005, was refitted with exterior storm panels beginning in 2010.

BATAVIA, NY - Plagued by repeated flooding from the Tonawanda Creek, the City of Batavia, located in Genesee County in western New York, suffered millions of dollars in damage to its homes and businesses over the years. So the citizens of Batavia decided to do something about it.

VENICE, FL – When Rod Hershberger, president and chief operating officer of PGT Industries, tasked his executive team with establishing a mitigation/business contingency plan, his goal was clear … “We will take care of our PGT family, whatever it takes.” When Hurricane Charley, a Category 4 hurri

INDIALANTIC, FL – Enhancements to an Indialantic government building’s storm resiliency have prevented interruptions to essential community services.

SOUTHPORT, NC - Frank and Pamela Taylor know the pain of losing a home to disaster. In 1988, fire claimed the couple's 4,000 square foot historic house in Michigan. "We were away when our home was destroyed," recalled Pamela Taylor.

VILLA GROVE, IL - Located along the Embarras River, Villa Grove, a small town of only 2,553 residents, is prone to flash floods as well as river flooding. The Jordan Slough and the Embarrass River are of significant relevance.

KEY WEST, FL - The Duval Beach Club sits on the only natural stretch of beach in Key West. In 2005, it was hit by Hurricanes Rita and Wilma. Thanks to the mitigation efforts initiated by the restaurant’s owner, Fred Tillman, worries about flood damage have been reduced.

HARRIS COUNTY, TX – For the last 25 years, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, has consistently ranked among the top two cancer care hospitals in the nation, according to a survey published by U.S. News & World Report.

ISLE OF WIGHT, VA - Like many communities along the Atlantic coast, Hurricane Floyd wreaked havoc in 1999 on Mark and Patricia Thompson's home with 19-inches of floodwater.

THIENSVILLE, WI - For nearly 50 years, the downtown area of the Village of Thiensville, located in Ozaukee County, Wisconsin, had been plagued with constant flooding.

RUIDOSO, NM - With funds from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Village of Ruidoso, New Mexico successfully completed a major mitigation effort to protect its residents from forest fires.

FRANKFURT, IL - The Village of Frankfort, Illinois is a bustling community in Will County, with a small portion in Cook County.

FORT RECOVERY, OH - The Village of Fort Recovery in west central Ohio is 20 miles southwest of the Wabash River. The Village experiences repetitive flooding from the Buck Ditch Basin, which flows through the center of the Village to reach the Wabash River.

RHINELAND, MO - Established in 1853 along the banks of the Missouri River on a backdrop of rolling hills and bluffs, repetitive flooding became a way of life for the nearly 200 residents of the tight-knit community of Rhineland.

SOLDIERS GROVE, WI – In August 2007, the biggest flood in the history of Soldiers Grove came roaring through the village. The Kickapoo River quickly topped the levees, and the water didn’t recede for about 10 days. Years earlier, the center to the town had been moved.

BILOXI, MS – A Biloxi couple has shown that home elevation not only prevents property loss, but can be pleasing to the eye as well. “We wanted a finished look,” said Judy Steckler of her family’s home.

FALLBROOK, CA - As a veteran firefighter, Gary Bottenfield understands the nature of fires and knows how to be prepared. Bottenfield has lived in Fallbrook for 32 years with his wife, Lana, where they have survived three major fires.

BURLEIGH COUNTY, ND - Before breaking ground for the office condominium he built in southeast Bismarck, Scott Beierle, along with his associates, analyzed the flood history and risks at the site.

NORTH CAROLINA - During late September 1999, Hurricane Floyd devastated much of eastern North Carolina with heavy rains, resulting in record flooding. Three major rivers and many creeks rose above previous flood levels and in some locations the waters breached their dams.

WAYNE COUNTY, MI - Located in southeastern Michigan, Wayne County frequently experiences severe weather and tornadoes. In 1997, a dangerous tornado moved through parts of Detroit and the surrounding suburbs of Highland Park and Hamtramck injuring 90 persons.

FORESTVILLE, CA - Wayne Gibb lives on a quiet street about a quarter of a mile from the banks of the Russian River.

GULFPORT, MS – Legacy Towers stands approximately 150 feet tall on the beach facing the Gulf of Mexico. These new luxury condominiums withstood the powerful 30-foot storm surge and winds of more than 140 miles per hour when Hurricane Katrina struck on August 29, 2005.

MERCER ISLAND, WA - Mercer Island in Lake Washington is a busy community with a population of 22,000 and high median income. Located east of Seattle, it is accessed only by the Interstate 90 floating bridge.

FORT BEND COUNTY, TX – As floodwaters ravaged the state of Texas during Memorial Day weekend 2015, the water pumps in Simonton were hard at work protecting the city.


NORTH LITTLE ROCK, AR – Homes in the Rose City subdivision of North Little Rock were kept flood-free during the severe weather of Christmas 2015, thanks to a 1800-2200 gallon-per-minute water pump put in place by the city’s Public Works Department.

SAN MARCOS, TX – Unlike hurricanes, which can be tracked prior to landfall, the art of tornado predictions is still in its infancy. Tornadoes can strike with only minutes to prepare and the consequences to life and property can be significant.

BURBANK, CA – During the last 10 years, Burbank has experienced many earthquakes. Two of the most notable were the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. These two made Warner Bros.

EASTLAND COUNTY, TX – A 2006 wildfire destroyed nearly 25 percent of Eastland’s land mass burning 60 homes within 12 hours. Part of the problem stemmed from a lack of communication and management. Lessons learned prompted the need for a mobile command unit.

VERNONIA, OR - Following an extended period of unseasonably cold weather and heavy snowfall in the Pacific Northwest, warming temperatures and rain began thawing the snowpack and frozen rivers throughout Oregon. Streams rose quickly and reached flood stage in many locations.

ARLINGTON, MA - The May 2006 flooding within the Arlington neighborhood of Lawrence impacted two dozen fewer families than in the past, according to Michael Sweeney, Planning Director for the city.

Salem, SD - Like several Midwestern states, in 1993 South Dakota experienced flooding along its major rivers.

OHIO - The Ohio Emergency Management Agency and Department of Natural Resources spearheaded a "Smart Recovery" awareness campaign.

SOLDIERS GROVE, WI – Residents of the Village of Soldiers Grove in southwest Wisconsin defied the odds, gathered local resources, and pioneered un-chartered territory to create an innovative mitigation plan of their own.

WAUKESHA COUNTY, WI – Elm Grove is a village in Waukesha County, Wisconsin, with a total area of 3.3 square miles, all of it land, except for Underwood Creek, which runs through the center of the village and through the downtown area.

BUNKER HILL VILLAGE, TX – In a city with a population of 3,500, only one house in Bunker Hill Village suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Harvey. Homeowners credit the city’s proactive approach to mitigation.

RARDEN, OH - "I'll tell you the difference it's made in my life," said Rarden resident Lelia Copas, "Whenever it rained at night at the old house, I'd wake up every hour or so and [lie] there listening for water rushing up out of the creek bed into our yard.

DANVILLE BOROUGH, PA - This community is no stranger to flooding. Located on the bank of the Susquehanna River, the town floods regularly during major rain events. Two areas, on the east and west edges of town, are particularly susceptible to flooding.

SLIDELL, LA – Hurricane Katrina (2005) moved four feet of water into Bruce Colby’s garage and one foot of water into his home in Slidell, Louisiana. Mr. Colby’s garage doors are intact and the overall home is structurally sound.

ALBANY, NY – Not all projects to reduce future flooding damages require complex solutions - sometimes a simple fix serves just as well.

SNAKE WARRIOR ISLAND, FL - Flooding has plagued many of the neighborhoods in this South Broward County, Florida, area since development in the 1940s and 1950s. The area primarily consists of single-family homes and small businesses.

CHATHAM ACRES, WA - A flood in December 1999 caused major damage to Chatham Acres, a small community located on the North Fork Stillaguamish River.

EAST LANSING, MI – Michigan State University received Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) funds to include storm shelters in a new Spartan Child Development Center in 2000.

HOWELL COUNTY, MO - Should disaster strike, residents of West Plains, Missouri won’t have any difficulty finding the City’s safe room. Chances are they’ve already used it for a school event, civic club dinner, bake sale, or other community function.

SOUTH PADRE ISLAND, TX - Jay Mitchim has weathered his job in South Padre Island’s building department for more than 20 years—longer than many of the buildings in this town known as the “Tropical Tip of Texas.” These buildings have survived some of Mother Nature’s toughest tests.

AURORA COUNTY, SD - Winter ice storms in early 1995 brought heavy mechanical stress to the overhead power lines, poles, hardware, and wire in this City. As a result, the utility was weakened, and its ability to withstand normal stress brought about by natural forces was impaired.

GRAFTON, IL - Grafton is a river town located at the confluence of the Illinois and the Mississippi rivers. The City grew because of its proximity to the river network and developed its character based on river life.

WASHINGTON - Lewis and Clark didn't reach the coast of Washington State until November 1805. So how do we know that a magnitude 9 earthquake occurred in the Seattle area on January 26, 1700?

MINGO COUNTY, WV - Heavy rainfall in the spring of 2009 caused landslides in numerous locations in Mingo County, West Virginia.

WASHINGTON, DC - During the snow season of 1993-1994, severe cold conditions caused frequent sleet and freezing rain. Over 14,000 tons of sand and large amounts of salt were used on the roadways resulting in environmental damage.

KING COUNTY, WA - The Snoqualmie River pays periodic visits to the historic neighborhoods of the former mill town of Snoqualmie, Washington. In eight major floods since 1990, the river delivered muddy water and misery to the homes and lives of hundreds of residents.

Yabucoa, PR - In Puerto Rico, almost any significant rain event can pose a threat to homes in floodprone areas. Hurricanes and tropical storms are even more dangerous due to the heavy rainfall they bring. The Jaime C.

CITY OF SIMI VALLEY, CA – Set in a valley between two hilly and mountainous areas of brush-covered wildlands north of Los Angeles, the City of Simi Valley faces multiple risks from natural hazards including wildfires, earthquakes, and floods.

OHIO - Many natural disasters of recent times have highlighted the need for government agencies to work together not only in the response and recovery phase of the disaster cycle, but also in the pre-disaster mitigation phase.

KING COUNTY, WA - Rainier Manor Mobile Home Park with more than 75 homes sits in a "bowl" on the banks of the Puyallup River.

ORANGE COUNTY, CA - The Orange County Fire Authority (OCFA), one of the largest regional fire service organizations in California, identified the seismic vulnerability of 22 fire stations throughout the Orange County area.

SHELBY COUNTY, TN – Shelby County is located within the impact area of the New Madrid fault system.

ORLANDO, FL - During Hurricane Charley in 2004, Fire Station No. 66 in Orlando survived sustained winds of 55 miles per hour (mph) and gusts of 97 mph without damage to the stationhouse or equipment.

ARKANSAS - From 1950 through 2003, Arkansas has been affected by 1497 tornadoes. More recent tornado data through 2003 indicates an average of 27.7 tornadoes occur annually in Arkansas. In 1999, Arkansas was slammed with 107 tornados, which is the most for a single year in the State's history.

SABINE PASS, TX - On the morning of September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike tore into Sabine Pass, located on the upper Texas Gulf Coast.

GILBOA, NY– A major relocation of households, structures and a road in the Town of Gilboa is credited with avoiding subsequent flood damage, even during the early-April storms this year that led to Schoharie County’s inclusion in a federal disaster declaration.

CRAIGHEAD COUNTY, AR – In March 2008, levees along rivers in northern and central Arkansas were straining to hold back floodwaters that were cresting at levels not seen in more than a quarter-century.

SARASOTA, FL – Sightseers in northeastern Sarasota County enjoy a natural bird habitat, walking trails, and scenic overviews in an area once flourishing with stalks of celery.

SANTA BARBARA, CA - For many older facilities, one mitigation option to protect against seismic hazards is the seismic rehabilitation of existing structural elements.

ESSEX COUNTY, MA – Flooding is the most common natural disaster threatening U.S. residents today. While each state has its own set of hazards and risks to deal with, the majority of states count flooding as the most likely disaster citizens will have to face, and Massachusetts is no exception.

HOUSTON, TX – With wind gusts approaching 100 miles per hour (mph), Hurricane Ike (September 2008) roared into Houston as a Category 2 storm, peeling sheets of steel off skyscrapers, downing power lines and trees, blowing out windows, and dumping mountains of debris.

Mayaguez, PR - Gusting storm winds and heavy rain have always been a factor for the Bella Vista Hospital, which was built on top of a mountain in Mayaguez.

LOUISIANA – Contractors and homeowners in Southern Louisiana are visiting local home improvement stores with thoughts of rebuilding, following the destruction Hurricanes Katrina and Rita brought to the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005.

PENSACOLA, FL - Pensacola residents who purchased tools at a home improvement store also had an opportunity to learn how to make their homes stronger. The area was hit by two hurricanes, Ivan and Dennis, in less than a year.

CLIFTON PARK, NY The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA’s) Hazard Mitigation (HM) staff recently reached out to students, teachers, and the administrator of Shenendehowa High School's Construction Systems Technology Program to introduce practices for building safer and

SHENANDOAH COUNTY, VA - On many occasions, heavy rains caused the Shenandoah River to overflow its banks into the 100-year floodplain, causing a repetitive problem that has increased in intensity and frequency. The property along side the river has been flooded on three occasions since 1981.

TALLADEGA COUNTY, AL – Wintorboro Fire Department’s community shelter was put to its first test during Hurricane Ivan on September 15, 2004. The shelter provided a safe haven for residents during the high winds and tornado warnings produced by Hurricane Ivan.

SENECA, MO – On May 10, 2008, Randy and Dana Lowe, and nine other members of their family, survived an EF4 tornado unharmed, even though it tore the couple’s Seneca home apart. The family barely had time to crowd together after realizing the huge tornado was coming.

EAGAR, AZ - When the Rodeo-Chediski Fire swept through Arizona, thousands of fleeing residents found a safe haven in the eastern Arizona town of Eagar.

SANTA ROSA ISLAND, FL – Santa Rosa Island has experienced serious repetitive flooding and wind damage as a result of numerous storms over the past several years, including Tropical Storm Alberto in 1994 and Hurricanes Erin and Opal in 1995.

EAST HAVEN, CT - The town of East Haven experienced flooding caused by the Farm River every winter, while summers meant flooding due to coastal storms. No matter what the season, East Haven’s firefighters were constantly evacuating and rescuing residents.

MIAMI-DADE COUNTY, FL - Hurricane Irene (1999) slammed into Miami-Dade County, causing heavy flooding, even in areas that had not been prone to inundation in the past. This was repeated a year later by Tropical Storm Leslie.

GUADALUPE COUNTY, TX – The Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) grant program assists states and communities.

WEBSTER, TX – Hurricane Harvey, a Category 4 hurricane, brought torrential downpours and days of flooding that devastated the small town of Webster, located southeast of Houston in Harris County.

RIVERBEND, NC - Hurricane Fran overwhelmed much of eastern North Carolina with nearly 100 mph wind gusts and 8 to 10 inches of rain when it devastated the state in 1996. The storm caused an estimated $5 billion in damage in NC alone.

KINGFISHER, OK – Over the past 10 years, residents in a six-block area cringed whenever authorities forecasted severe rain for their area. And on August 19, 2007, two local creeks ended up spilling from their banks and poured dirty brown floodwater downtown.

TARRANT COUNTY, TX – Disaster strikes without warning. While first responders do all within their power to handle emergencies efficiently, having additional information regarding the rescue mission can expedite the process.

CLARK COUNTY, WI - State, Indian Tribal, and local governments are required to develop a hazard mitigation plan as a condition for receiving funding for mitigation projects.

FOLEY, AL - Teamwork among hospital and government personnel resulted in a hospital ready to face Hurricane Ivan on September 15, 2004. Hurricane Ivan, a Category 3 storm, packed winds over 100 mph when it passed over the South Baldwin Regional Medical Center, in Foley, Alabama.

UTAH - "The Urwin and Wufi Children's Adventure With Wildfire Coloring Book" was created in 1994 as an interagency effort between the Utah State Hazard Mitigation Program and the Utah Division of Forestry, Fire and State Lands.

WEBB COUNTY, TX – When Hurricane Alex made landfall on the northeast Mexican Coast in the summer of 2010, causing extensive flooding along the Rio Grande River in Texas, mitigation actions previously taken by the city of Rio Bravo certainly paid off.

KING COUNTY, WA - On October 1, 2002, King County, Washington became the nation’s first Class 4 county in the Community Rating System (CRS).

TILLAMOOK COUNTY, OR ‒ The Port of Tillamook Bay (POTB) sustained damage to its facilities including a railroad line. The POTB Commissioners determined that the public would not be best served by repairing the damaged railroad and requested funding to develop several alternate projects.

DRAYTON, ND - North Dakota's historic 1997 Red River Valley flood nearly spelled doom for one small-town medical clinic.

MERRIAM, KS - On October 4, 1998, a storm dumped 5.6 inches of rain on the City of Merriam in Johnson County, Kansas. Flash flooding damaged structures throughout Merriam and the surrounding county. After the flood, the City and County investigated engineering solutions for the flood area.

KIRKLAND, IL - Les Bellah, former Mayor of Kirkland, Illinois, knows the power of water. According to Bellah, in July 1996, a storm dumped eighteen inches of rain on his town in less than twelve hours. The Kishwaukee River jumped its banks and flooded the Congress Lake Estates Trailer Park.

GRAND FORKS, ND - In April 1997 the Red River overflowed its banks, flooding 8,600 homes in Grand Forks, North Dakota. While the floodwaters rose, a fire broke out in the downtown business district. Between the flood and the fire, all 315 businesses were affected.

STONE COUNTY, AR – It took years to build the homes on Shipman Drive and only a matter of seconds to destroy them. Shipman Drive, located in Mountain View, Arkansas, had a total of nine residential properties until February 5, 2008, when a tornado claimed all nine homes.

FALMOUTH, KY – “There is no Falmouth,” lamented Kentucky State Police Trooper Jan Wuchner, following a visit via helicopter to the flood-ravaged town on March 2, 1997.

MILWAUKEE, WI - As basements dried and Milwaukee residents discarded water-soaked belongings, it was evident that flood-proofing needed to be done in regards to these saturated homes and basements.

CHARLESTON, SC - Nestled in the middle of downtown Charleston, South Carolina, sits a little piece of history. The Dock Street Theatre originally opened in 1736, and was the first building constructed in the 13 colonies with the express purpose of serving as a venue for the performing arts.

ST. MARYS, WV - Hurricane Ivan (2004) raised the Ohio River up to the rafters at St. Marys Community Hall this past September.

AUTAUGA COUNTY, AL - After seeing the destruction of his parents’ home, an Autauga County fire fighter has decided that it is up to him to keep himself and his family safe from storms.

SURFSIDE BEACH, SC – At only a half a mile from the beach and 25 feet above sea level, the most critical government buildings in Surfside Beach have always been in grave danger during hurricanes.

VIERRA, FL – Storm shutters for most people mean protection from damage during severe weather. For Bill Steenson who lives in Vierra, Florida, getting ready for a serious weather event by mounting storm shutters has its rewards.

RIPLEY COUNTY, IN - When Don Wood built his storm shelter 25 years ago, he didn’t know how often he’d have to use it. As it turned out, Wood and his family sought protection in that shelter through several windstorms and a few tornadoes during those 25 years.

GADSDEN, AL - When Randall and Cheryl Crain saw the death and devastation from the tornado that struck the Coates Bend community in Alabama in December 2000, it did not take them long to decide they needed the protection of a storm shelter.

OKLAHOMA CITY, OK - Twenty-seven years ago, Mr. Price had a below ground storm shelter installed in the backyard of his family’s Oklahoma home. Severe storms and tornadoes frequent the area and are a cause of great anxiety for the residents.

GALLOWAY, NJ – All emergencies, hazards, and disasters have one key concept in common: an emergency operations plan (EOP). Nearly one week before Hurricane Sandy ravaged the New Jersey coast, communities prepared for the storm, but many were not nearly prepared for what actually took place.

KEY LARGO, FL – A recreational vehicle (RV) park that was redeveloped into a modular-home condominium community with stilt-built homes has demonstrated the benefits of mitigation.

STEELE COUNTY, MN - The winds blow hard across the farmlands and small towns of Steele County in southern Minnesota. Along with planting season comes tornado and storm season. The mostly rural county has experienced three presidentially declared disasters in the 1990s.

NORTH DAKOTA - Residents in North Dakota expect to see snow every winter. A person cannot live in one of the coldest states and not expect to endure severe wintry conditions year after year.

AMERICAN SAMOA — One week before the tsunami came crashing down on dozens of villages in American Samoa on September 29, 2009, many teachers from the town of Tula noticed that whales and dolphins had been surfacing in areas where they hadn’t been seen before, and took their classes to see them.

BILOXI, MS - Delores Sambuchino’s 1,750 square-foot home, purchased in 1994, has several windows and doors. Although they let sunshine and fresh air into the home, they can also be hazardous during inclement weather.

PUNTA GORDA, FL - What do you do if Hurricane Charley is about to pay an unwelcome visit in just two days and 75 percent of your office building’s exterior walls are ceiling-tofloor glass windows?

ST. THOMAS, USVI - On August 26, 2006, the U.S.Virgin Islands (USVI) Department of Public Works applied for a Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Grant, as authorized by Section 1366 of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended (NFIA), 42 U.S.C. 4104c.

RUIDOSO, NM - On Highway 70, as the New Mexico desert landscape ascends into mountains, a yellow road sign warns northbound travelers that the area may close due to flooding. In 2006, the continuous summer rains caused that to happen.

MISSOURI - Anyone who lived through the 1993 Midwest floods will never forget them. Of the nine states affected by flooding during the spring and summer of 1993, Missouri was the hardest hit, with damages totaling $3 billion.

AKIACHAK, AK – Steve Kenrick moved to Alaska when he was 55 years old to pursue a new career in education after leaving his previous career in the wood products industry.

MANDEVILLE, LA - Wayne J. Berggren is a busy man – and a happy one. Mr. Berggren is the building inspector and floodplain manager for the City of Mandeville, a small community on the other side of Lake Ponchatrain across from New Orleans.

ALBANY, NY – Repairs of a section of a stream bank in the Town of Vestal, damaged by Tropical Depression Ivan last fall, included special measures that have proven to be successful in protecting an adjacent sewer line.

BRIGANTINE, NJ - The City of Brigantine is a barrier island community in Atlantic County, New Jersey, with a population of 12,594. The city is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the back bays on the west, inlets on the north and south and has areas that flood repeatedly.

LITTLE SILVER, NJ – Ken Murphy, a resident of the Borough of Little Silver, New Jersey, did not expect his neighborhood to flood, but it did.

SOUTHPORT, NC - The impact of Hurricane Floyd (1999) on the City of Southport, while not devastating, created enough storm water drainage to again tax the systems in place. The City Council and City Manager are working together to obtain funding for a new storm water management system.

BERKLEY COUNTY, WV - Sportsman's Paradise was initially a place for weekend visits and summer vacations. Approximately 10 years ago it became a year-round community.

ARCADIA, FL – Since its construction in 1968, Desoto Memorial Hospital has provided uninterrupted medical care for the surrounding community – even during the 2004 onslaught of Hurricane Charley.

FOLEY, AL - Teamwork among hospital and government personnel resulted in a hospital ready to face Hurricane Ivan on Sept. 15, 2004. Hurricane Ivan, a Category 3 storm, packed winds over 100 mph when it passed over the South Baldwin Regional Medical Center, in Foley, Alabama.

VICTORIA, TX – Homes near a flooded creek channel in Victoria, Texas fared well during Hurricane Harvey because of mitigation projects completed in 2005.

WAYNE, NJ - The Hoffman Grove neighborhood along the Pompton River began as a summer recreation area used for camping, boating, and swimming around the turn of the 20th century.

LARAMIE COUNTY, WY - Cheyenne, Wyoming, a city that counts authentic cowboys among its 55,000 residents, appears to be an unlikely place for flooding. Summers in the former frontier town tend to be hot, dry and windy, while the winters are cold, dry, and windy.

ORLANDO, FL - Nestled fast asleep in their beds, a senior-citizen couple was abruptly awakened before dawn on February 2, 2007, by a NOAA weather radio alert. The alert was followed by a call from their son in Orange City warning that a tornado had touched down at nearby Lady Lake.

HENDERSON COUNTY, IL - In June 2008, residents in 21 counties suffered flood-related losses.

OAKLAND, MI - Thanks to a two phased grant Bloomfield Township applied for through FEMA’s Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP), the Franklin branch stream bank is a highlight of the community rather than a safety concern.

COLORADO SPRINGS, CO – Excessive erosion of the Cottonwood Creek channel in Colorado Springs threatened two arch culverts below an old railroad bridge, a sewer line and a vital $10 million CenturyLink telecommunications facility.

ALBANY, NY - A flood control project completed three years ago in the City of Rensselaer has spared some residents of their traditional spring flooding, even during the early-April storms this year that led to Rensselaer County’s inclusion in a federal disaster declaration.

SAN FRANCISCO, CA - On Oct. 17, 1989, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter Scale rocked the San Francisco Bay area. Named the Loma Prieta earthquake, it was felt by millions of people in a 400,000-square-mile area. Sixty-three persons died because of the earthquake.

WEST PALM BEACH, FL - Florida school systems often rely on portable classrooms to ease overcrowded schools. Typically constructed of inexpensive materials that are quickly assembled, traditional portables are easily damaged during severe weather.

PASS CHRISTIAN, MS - The Sundbergs had been building their fully-mitigated home for eight years, and it was 85 percent complete, when Hurricane Katrina slammed into their area on August 29, 2005, with a huge storm surge and reported sustained winds of 125 mph.

CALIFORNIA – Many States and communities over the years have decided that it is in their best interest to begin mitigating the natural hazard risks posed to critical facilities, such as hospitals.

LACEY, WA - Holmes Island lies within the waters of beautiful Long Lake in western Washington State. Less than 30 homes are on the island, with only one road and bridge for access and one pipeline for its water source. That waterline follows along Holmes Island Road and across the bridge.

SACRAMENTO COUNTY, CA - On November 20, 1997, Delta Dental Plan of California and Deltanet, Delta's data processing and consulting subsidiary, conducted a business continuity exercise for its Sacramento facilities.

DELAWARE - There have been more than 550 documented earthquakes within 150 miles of Delaware since 1677. The largest registered earthquake occurred in the New Castle County area in 1871. The second-largest was in 1983 near the Delaware River in northern Delaware.

DEL NORTE COUNTY, CA - On Aug. 22, 2000, Del Norte County signed a Partnership Agreement with FEMA under the Cooperating Technical Communities initiative (now the Cooperating Technical Partners [CTP]).

RAMONA, CA - On Sunday, October 21, 2007, Lisa LeFors of Ramona, CA heard the startling news about the Witch Fire advancing toward her home and started making arrangements to evacuate.

CALAVERAS COUNTY, CA ‒ “When it looks like it’s snowing and its 90 degrees outside, that’s not a good thing,” recalled Darren Borgedalen of Mountain Ranch, a community in rural Calaveras County, California.

NAVAJO COUNTY, AZ - The home of Mrs. Lois Trimble, which she and her husband have owned since 1969, is located in the Pinedale area, Navajo, County, Arizona, just 10 miles NW of Show Low. They built their house over the years and it became their primary residence in 1981.

COLORADO SPRINGS, CO – The Waldo Canyon Fire in June 2012 was one of the most destructive fires in Colorado history.

EVANSVILLE, IN - Evansville is considered earthquake country. The Deaconess Hospital in Evansville has implemented an earthquake mitigation program for the facility, which opened in 1892.

DAUPHIN ISLAND, AL - Dauphin Island is threatened by periodic flooding and has suffered substantial damage and losses from previous floods. As a result, the town has implemented a flood damage prevention ordinance to reduce the risk to lives and property.

DAUPHIN ISLAND, AL - Alabama's Dauphin Island has repeatedly experienced roofing failures during past hurricanes. Roof failures usually lead to further interior damage from subsequent rainfall.

RILEY COUNTY, KS - Riley County, which contains the City of Manhattan, is creating a countywide Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM).

CLAREMONT, NH - You would hardly notice the Quabbinnight Brook as it passes under Sugar River Drive in the City of Claremont, NH on a sunny day.

JACKSON COUNTY, TX - In September 2005, the threat of Hurricane Rita had local officials in Jackson County Texas depending largely on “word of mouth” to warn area residents of the impending storm.

PUEBLO, CO – The county of Pueblo is located at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek, 112 miles south of the Colorado state capital in Denver.


CALUMET, OK - Before 2004, when weather threatened Oklahoma skies, students and staff of Maple School in Calumet were bused to nearby country homes with storm cellars.

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY, CA - The Colton Unified School District, located in San Bernardino County in Southern California, has 26 elementary, middle and high schools and eight separate departmental facilities.

DURHAM, NH - The College Brook flows through property owned by the University of New Hampshire and down through residential and commercial neighborhoods in the Town of Durham, ultimately emptying into Mill Pond.

HARRIS COUNTY, TX – Harris County is the nation’s third largest county with 34 cities and a population of 4.4 million residents. The County faces significant natural hazards, such as floods, hurricanes, storm surge, and severe thunderstorms.

ROCK ISLAND COUNTY, IL - In a county that has a history of flooding and nearly 150,000 residents, enforcing building codes, zoning codes, floodplain ordinances, property maintenance codes, and trying to convince residents to adhere to sound building practices can be a tough job.

CLOVERPORT, KY – Cloverport is a small town on the banks of the Ohio River. For the residents of the Creekview Apartment Complex, the benefits of hazard mitigation are evident every time it rains. Clover Creek, a branch of the Ohio River, flows behind the property.

OCEAN SPRINGS, MS – When Ocean Springs veterinarian Dr. Mabry Allison decided to expand his clinic, he wanted the facility to be a safe haven for pets during extreme weather.

LAS VEGAS, NV - On July 8,1999, the City of Las Vegas experienced the worst flash flood in its history. The average annual rainfall for the area is four inches and this event produced two to two and a half times the normal amount in one six hour period.

HOISINGTON, KS – On April 21, 2001, an F4 tornado struck Hoisington, Kansas (population 2,975), severely damaging 230 homes and businesses and leaving one person dead.

WASHINGTON, MO - Flooding in the summer of 1993 uprooted thousands of people and destroyed or damaged their property. People and animals were caught in raging waters, leading to many deaths.

VASSAR, MI - Located in east central Michigan, the City of Vassar is 40 miles northeast of Flint. The City of Vassar is a small community that experiences repetitive flooding from the Cass River. For years, this strong-minded community had shrugged its shoulders at the flood situation.

URBANA, IL - Mitigation doesn't always take the form of actual construction projects or acquisitions. Federal and State funding mechanisms like the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) can sometimes be used in creative ways to meet local needs.

SNOQUALMIE, WA - A river constriction at Snoqualmie Falls causes the river to back up into the City. Past floods have exceeded six feet above grade in places.

CRAWFORD COUNTY, AR – Recovering from continuous flooding was all too familiar to Joey Work and his family. The nightmares began in 2000, re-surfaced in 2002 and again in 2004.

PUEBLO COUNTY, CO – Embankment erosion of Fountain Creek was threatening the roadway in Chinook, an area in the city of Pueblo. “When this creek floods, basically this whole area is inundated with water,” said Earl Wilkinson, director of Public Works.


WASHINGTON - In 1990, the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) initiated the Community Rating System (CRS) as a means of recognizing and encouraging additional activities that communities can take to surpass the minimum floodplain regulations requir

HOUSTON, TX - The Floodplain Awareness Success in Texas (FAST) Community Rating System (CRS) users group is based in Houston, Texas and is made up of CRS communities that meet on a monthly basis to share ideas and best practices, learn new approaches to successful floodplain mana

ROSEVILLE, CA - With the realization that implementing the Community Rating System (CRS) program was not much more than the cost of implementing good floodplain management, the City of Roseville joined the CRS and is currently rated at Class 5, giving residents outside the Special Flood Hazard Ar

KEY BISCAYNE, FL - In 1992, Hurricane Andrew swept through southern Florida. The resulting storm surge and flooding destroyed a large portion of the Village of Key Biscayne and demonstrated the need for a plan to cope with flood hazards.

CAPE GIRARDEAU, MO — For a city on the western shore of the Mississippi River, city officials and citizens are determined not to let that the river swallow up their homes as it did during the great Midwest floods of the 1990s.

MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WI - A grant from the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program provided the Milwaukee County Division of Emergency Management with funds to create an informative, eye-catching Community Outreach Display.

HILO, HI - The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes (CSAV) is located on the Big Island (Hawaii) and operates under the auspices of the University of Hawaii (UH), Hilo.

WAIKOLOA VILLAGE, HI - One of the largest fires ever recorded on the Big Island of Hawaii torched 25,000 acres of grassland in August of 2005. The wildfire threatened Waikoloa Village, a community of about 5,000 people located on the slopes of Mauna Kea above the Kohala Coast.

CALUMET, OK – It took a small community a year and a half to come up with its share of the money to fund a much-needed safe room, but they are still counting the years of benefit it continues to bring.


JACKSON, OH - Unlike many of the communities which suffered major damage in the March 1997 flood, Jackson, Ohio, (population 6,700) is located more than 30 miles from the Ohio River in the state's hilly and scenic southeastern corner.

SHAWNEE, KS - A tornado with a wind speed of 250 miles per hour could destroy mostly any man-made structure in its path, except for an 8 by 10 foot ground-level room reinforced with a wood frame and a thin sheet of steel.

Barceloneta, PR - For years, life in downtown Barceloneta had a serious drawback: repeated flooding from the Rio Grande de Manat.

SCRANTON, PA - In January 1996, Nay Aug Avenue experienced its second major flood in 11 years. The 13 homes along the avenue were built prior to 1940 with no footers for the foundation to rest on. Additionally, the foundation walls were of stone and crumbling mortar.

CULPEPPER COUNTY, VA - When the Rapidan River in northern Virginia crested 30.5 feet above flood stage in June of 1995, devastating the Furloughs’ historic 145-year-old house, they knew what they would do: rebuild on their home site by the river, elevate it, and get flood insurance.

FRANKSTOWN, PA - Some Linds Crossing residents refer to the Little Juniata River that flows by their houses as "The Gentle Giant." On a normal day, the stream is gentle, shallow and slow moving, though hardly a giant.

KEMAH, TX - Paul Strizek’s home on Galveston Bay is much more than just a house. For more than 50 years, his bayside cottage has been at the center of the most important of his family memories, and it was his mother’s house.

HAYS COUNTY, TX On May 24, 2015, floodwater from the Blanco River overwhelmed numerous Texas cities. The record floods left residents homeless, structures damaged and claimed several lives.


FREEPORT, NY – As Hurricane Sandy barreled towards the Northeast coast during the last week of October 2012, Carl Laibach and his family watched with a growing sense of dread.

SARASOTA, FL – In July 2003 summer rains in Sarasota County once again swelled the Myakka River beyond its bank, this time flooding 41 homes for 30 days.

BALDWIN COUNTY, AL – The Scarcliff family enjoyed living on the river. What they disliked was the fact that each time Fish River overtopped its banks, floodwaters would show its presence in their home.


SAUCIER, MS – Retired electrician Schuyler “Skipper” Palmer and his wife, Ivy, used to expect flooding and damage to their home whenever the rainy season began. To mitigate flooding, the Palmers decided to elevate their brick home.

BANGOR, PA - Mel Stalbird has lived in his Bangor home for 50 years. Built by his grandparents in 1955, his home rests on the banks of the Delaware River in an idyllic setting his family has enjoyed for generations.

COAL CITY, WV - In March 2010, residents of Coal City began to worry about the amount of rain they were receiving. Nearly 6 inches had already fallen that month and another 2.5 inches that day was more than the ground could take.

ROSEVILLE, CA - The City of Roseville and surrounding areas have experienced repetitive flooding in 1986, 1995, and 1997. These floods have caused significant damage to both public and private properties.

FORT MYERS BEACH, FL — When Hurricane Charley hit Fort Myers Beach in August 2004, four buildings at Tom Kolar’s Lighthouse Resort Inn and Suites, which sits 200 feet from the beach at San Carlos Bay, remained dry, undamaged, and full of customers.

GENEVA COUNTY, AL - During the spring of 2009, heavy rains with damaging winds caused major flooding throughout Alabama. But Marjorie and Otto Wallace did not worry. They were sitting almost 11 feet above the level reached by the floodwaters.

BILOXI, MS – Passers-by often ask Harry and Clarice Shoemake about their elevated house. The couple noticed the new interest in their property after Hurricane Katrina struck on August 29, 2005, destroying large portions of many Gulf Coast communities.

HAMILTON COUNTY, FL - Mary Ellen Tatum and her husband, Bob, bought the riverfront property along the Withlacoochee River in 1995 with the intention of using the double-wide mobile home they placed on it as a “weekend getaway.” Eventually, the natural beauty of their “vacation house” lured the Ta

OWEN COUNTY, IN - When Robin Lane moved to Spencer, Indiana in 2003, she had no idea that five years later she would be rescued by boat during a flood.

ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FL - In 1995, Hurricane Erin caused extensive damage to Escambia County. So the City of Pensacola fire stations and police headquarters worked to find solutions to protect their buildings from the future damage of hurricane-force winds.

JONESPORT, ME – The town of Jonesport, Maine, overlooks Chandler Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. It offers a spectacular water view and maritime activities such as fishing and pleasure boating.

HURLEY, NY – Repairs to a section of highway in the Town of Hurley in Ulster County, which was damaged by severe storms and flooding last fall, were performed to higher standards that should help protect the road against future destruction.

PORTAGE COUNTY, WI - Portage County, Wisconsin has a population of approximately 70,000 residents living in an area that is 62 percent urban and 38 percent rural (agricultural areas that are geographically separated).

BUNA, TX – For more than three decades, Emergency Management Coordinator and Floodplain Administrator Billy Ted Smith has taken a proactive approach to engaging the communities he serves in preparing for when disaster strikes.

SEGUIN, TX - Fearing that residents along the Guadalupe River were not receiving flood warnings in a timely manner, Seguin County’s emergency management coordinator, Dan Kinsey, developed and piloted an emergency call out system.

HIDALGO COUNTY, TX – Federal and local agencies worked against the clock to keep the citizens of Hidalgo County safe from the raging Rio Grande River in July 2010. The residents of the small town of Peñitas had no idea they were so close to danger.

OCEAN COUNTY, NJ – In late October 2012, when Hurricane Sandy stormed up the east coast, Seaside Park, New Jersey resident Christopher Anthony and his fiancé were prepared to face yet another hurdle.

DAVIDSON COUNTY, TN – After a May 2010 flood, Harding and Jona Brewster learned that their home in Old Hickory, Tennessee, was not in compliance with the Metro-Nashville-Davidson County flood ordinances.

CHESAPEAKE BEACH, MD - The merciless winds and rains of Hurricane Isabel created a 28 feet tidal surge up Chesapeake Bay, flooding many communities along the Eastern Shore of Maryland.

CHESTER, MD - Christine Behr describes herself as "playing general contractor," managing the steps necessary to make her new modular home ready for occupancy. Mrs. Behr and her husband used their own funds to purchase the home and the property was a gift from her grandparents.

SLIDELL, LA – Everett and Carol Brugier heeded the call to evacuate before Hurricane Katrina struck Louisiana. Their house in Pirates Cove in Slidell suffered only minor damage, thanks to several special hurricane-resistant features built into it.

HARRISBURG, PA – When the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency (PEMA) gave the storm alert one day before April Fool’s Day, Don Menke yawned. “This must be a joke,” he thought.

JEFFERSON COUNTY, AR – The Christmas weekend of 2015 is one that many residents in Arkansas will never forget. The holiday began with up to 10 inches of rain on December 24 and Christmas Day was drenched.

MOSS POINT, MS - The Stork family’s home is the only elevated building in their community.

CHARLESTON COUNTY, SC – Carl Simmons is the Director of Building Services for unincorporated Charleston County, and he is on a mission.

SARASOTA, FL - In 1992, Sarasota, Manatee and Polk counties entered into their second multi-year drought. For the first time, the Southwest Florida Water Management District imposed mandatory water restrictions as residents reported wells could not supply enough water for drinking and cooking.

DRAYTON, ND - Carol Gardner, a long time resident and city auditor of Drayton, ND, fears the day she’ll awaken to find that a street or building in her city has, without warning, fallen into the river which hugs its eastern border.

NAPOLEONVILLE, LA – When the waters start to rise, the pumps get going in low-lying Assumption Parish — thanks to a mitigation measure that has saved the parish from flooding time and time again.


GALVESTON, TX – When Roy De Gesero and his wife, Stephanie, purchased their Galveston home in 2003, the mortgage lender informed them they were not required to carry a flood insurance policy on the house.

BOSQUE COUNTY, TX – Flood waters repeatedly inundated a small community causing extensive damage. In 1991, a record flood devastated the small town of Clifton, Texas. Some homes were totally destroyed and others required major renovation.

DEWITT COUNTY, IL – Located in the heart of central Illinois, the town of Clinton is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the nation. While trying to maintain productivity, the town has to contend with floods.

DEERFIELD BEACH, FL – In 1997, Deerfield Beach became the first community to participate in a FEMA mitigation grant program that encouraged the building of disaster-resistant communities.

AUSTIN, TX – Austin’s city leaders have seen disaster before and understand the folly of waiting and hoping that a disaster will never again hit this area. With that in mind, they developed Disaster Ready Austin in collaboration with Travis County and the American Red Cross.

DIAMONDHEAD, MS – Raymond J. Sheehy felt confident that mitigation measures would help keep his home safe when Hurricane Katrina hammered the Gulf Coast with 135-mile per hour (mph) winds on August 29, 2005. He was right.

LOCKWOOD, NV – Life on the Truckee River can be dangerous during winter rainstorms. Warm currents from the South Pacific Ocean bring rain on top of the winter snow, which can cause severe flooding.

MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WI – Incorporated in 1955, the Village of Brown Deer has been impacted by flooding several times. The village has low-lying areas and two tributaries, Beaver Creek and South Branch Creek, which funnel down to the Milwaukee River.

MANHATTAN, NY - A preliminary forecast of the type of losses that the New York City area could suffer after an earthquake is the subject of this study funded by FEMA Region II and coordinated by the Multi-Disciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.

EAST GRAND FORKS, MN - The City of East Grand Forks is located in northwestern Minnesota along the Red River of the North. As a result of heavy snowfall during the winter and quick snowmelt in the spring, the Red River valley experienced a record flood in April of 1997.

MOSS POINT, MS – Johnny Chestnut could hardly pull himself away from watching the weather on his television as Hurricane Isaac slowly churned back and forth in the Gulf of Mexico in August 2012.


ORLEANS PARISH, LA – When Hurricane Katrina hit the Louisiana coast on August 29, 2005, Sultana Hasen escaped with her life, but little else.


VERO BEACH, FL - In 1998, Scott and Susan Deal decided to add a bedroom to their existing home for their growing family. But their building permit was denied.

SKAGIT COUNTY, WA - If Mike and Velda Thrams’ home in Hamilton, Washington, was not elevated, they would not have moved into it last June. And if it had not been elevated by its previous owner following the 1995 flood, it would be as flooded and unlivable as the house next door.

PENSACOLA, FL - When the lights go out, seemingly small things take on a much larger significance. During a major power outage, valuable time is saved through the ability to plug in a generator without having to hotwire it into an electrical panel.

SKAGIT COUNTY, WA - If Mike and Velda Thrams’ home in Hamilton, Washington, was not elevated, they would not have moved into it last June. And if it had not been elevated by its previous owner following the 1995 flood, it would be as flooded and unlivable as the house next door.

ELBA, AL - Originally named "Bridgeville," after the ferry that ran across the Pea River, Elba was founded around 1840, and is also the county seat of Coffee County, located in the fork between Beaver Dam Creek and the confluence of Whitewater Creek and the Pea River.

DODGE COUNTY, NE - The county of Dodge, Nebraska has seen its share of flooding in the past. In 1993 alone, the Elkhorn River has overflowed its banks on at least five separate occasions. The repetitive flooding damaged over 5,100 acres of crops and structures per event.

LOS ANGELES, CA - The dangers associated with the flood control system in the County of Los Angeles (LA), especially during periods of heavy rains, produces a substantial threat to the health and safety of our young people.

FORT COLLINS, CO - Frequent flooding events have plagued Fort Collins over the decades, disrupting lives and destroying property. A 1997 flood resulted in five deaths and damages to more than 2,000 homes and businesses.

BATON ROUGE, LA — After hurricanes Katrina and Rita walloped Louisiana in 2005, the need to rebuild stronger, safer, and smarter became obvious.


PINE FOREST, TX – For three days in March, torrential rain saturated parts of eastern Texas, resulting in record flooding across the Sabine River Basin. Some areas saw more than 10 inches of rain, others recorded more than 18 inches.

SMITHVILLE, TX – Smithville has seen more than its fair share of disasters in recent years, from multiple floods to the largest fire disaster in state history. These disasters sparked the need to intensify hazard mitigation efforts.

OTTAWA, IL - Located 80 miles southwest of Chicago along the Illinois and Fox Rivers, the biannual flooding of one particular floodplain area of Ottawa typically lasts three days with outside water depths anywhere from 1 to 6 feet.

BETHANY BEACH, DE - Major coastal storms, with approximately a six-year frequency, severely damaged the old permanently-installed handicapped beach access ramp. This presented danger from wind-borne and water-borne debris to the adjacent fixed structures as well as any passersby.

ATMORE, AL - Atmore Plaza was known for its chronic flooding, along with the other structures located in the 142–acre Owen Street drainage area. The existing 1940’s drainage system could not handle the volume of surface water that accumulated during heavy rains.

ATHENS COUNTY, OH - Kara Edmonds is Community Development Coordinator for the TriCounty Community Action Agency serving Athens, Hocking and Perry counties in southeastern Ohio.

ARKANSAS – Arkansas Tech University’s (ATU’s) use of Hazus shows the benefits that the Hazus data offers in microanalysis situations.

INDEPENDENCE COUNTY, AR – Only six months into the year 2008, the State of Arkansas has had three disaster declarations warranting Federal assistance.

NEW YORK, NY – Navigating the murky waters of flood insurance can be challenging at the best of times. For those who have actually experienced a flood, the process of filing and dealing with a flood insurance claim can be overwhelming.

FRANKLINTON, LA – During the winter of 2002, David and Laquetta Passman moved their manufactured home from Enon to Franklinton, Louisiana.

SKAGIT COUNTY, WA – After 34 homes on the west side of the Skagit River, opposite downtown Mount Vernon, were severely damaged in the 1996 floods, city officials concluded it was time to take aggressive steps to prevent this kind of damage in the future.

DENVER, CO – Park Hill drainage basin in northeast Denver was no stranger to frequent flooding. The basin includes a mix of industrial, commercial and residential properties.

BRAZORIA COUNTY, TX – During man-made and natural disasters, the Freeport Fire and EMS Department is designated as the Emergency Operations Center and the Freeport Police Department as the Incident Command Post for the city of Freeport and several surrounding cities.

HILO, HI - It was November 2000 when more than 27 inches of rain fell on the city of Hilo in a 24-hour period. The banks of the Alenaio Stream overflowed, and the water marks reached 10 feet high. Fortunately for the community of Hilo, the floodwall was 12 feet high.

NAPA, CA – In 1987, Jim Hallock bought a flood-damaged duplex and spent nearly $50,000 to remove and replace the downstairs sheetrock and flooring. The property was flooded again in 1998 and 2003, and incurred $100,000 in damages.

MONROE COUNTY, FL - Barbara Schwartz, who lived for weeks without electricity after Hurricane Andrew ravaged South Florida in 1992, knows how to keep her family hurricaneready. “We never wait until the last minute once we get the notice of when a storm will hit our area,” noted Schwartz.

AUSTIN, MN - When the City of Austin, located in southern Minnesota, implemented their most recent mitigation project, no one expected to reap the benefits so soon.

REFUGIO COUNTY, TX – Austwell, a tiny Gulf Coast town with a population of 200, has big plans to survive hurricanes.

MASON CITY, IA - During the first week of June 2008, heavy rains flooded major rivers and tributaries, forcing the Winnebago River and creeks (Willow, Chelsea, Ideal, Mason, and Calmus) to fill area homes in Mason City, Iowa, with up to 10 feet of floodwaters.

BERKELEY, CA - Like most California communities, the City of Berkeley is susceptible to multiple hazards, including earthquakes, wildland-urban interface fires, landslide and liquefaction areas, and urban creek flooding.

BELHAVEN, NC - The first thing that usually strikes visitors who enter the small harbor town of Belhaven (population 1,900) is that many of the homes, whether trailer or mansion, are elevated high enough to protect them from floodwaters. The town did not always look like this.

BEAUMONT, TX — Folks in Beaumont used to call their town “Bayou City” because it was under water so often.

AMITE, LA – When Jack and Fancy Hanks decided to build a house just 200 feet from the Tangipahoa River, they saw an opportunity to create a home that could stand up to nearly anything Mother Nature could throw at it.


SAN FRANCISCO, CA - The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Train Operations Center is located in a very high seismic hazard area of Northern California. BART services the entire San Francisco Bay metropolitan area and is a major economic driver impacting the region.

GENEVA, AL - At the end of a week of rain and flooding in March 1990, about 6,000 people in Alabama had lost their homes or had seen their property damaged. Hundreds more had to seek shelter in neighboring Georgia and the Florida panhandle.

BALDWIN COUNTY, AL - Several homes that border the Fish River have repeatedly flooded during periods of heavy rainfall, which results in a rise in the river levels. These homes were especially affected in Hurricanes Erin (1995), Opal (1995) and Danny (1997).

MADISON COUNTY, VA - During June of 1995, four major, record rainfalls caused flooding and landslides with such velocities that structures in the valley were knocked off their foundations.

SOUTH PORTLAND, ME - The City of South Portland has an old combined sewer system. When it rains, all of the runoff goes into the system. When heavy rain and flooding occurs, the sewer system is overwhelmed and the cellars of houses are swamped.

BASTROP COUNTY, TX - During the Labor Day weekend of 2011, Bastrop County was devastated by the biggest wildfire that the state of Texas had ever experienced. More than 1,600 homes burned; residents felt overwhelmed.

WHITTIER, AK — On March 26, 2009 an avalanche fell 2,480 vertical feet, crossed the Alaska Railroad tracks, the Portage River and destroyed a 5 span section of Chugach Electric’s 25,000 volt power line that serves the community of Whittier, the Whittier Railroad and Auto Tunnel, Portage Visitor’s

PORT CHARLOTTE, FL. – The Otero brothers survived the widespread devastation of Hurricane Andrew in 1992 only to see similar damage when Hurricane Charley came through Charlotte County in the summer of 2004.

ESTES PARK, CO – As floodwaters poured into nearby homes and businesses, Estes Park realtor Bret Freedman’s office building remained dry.

NAPLES, FL – Habitat for Humanity has applied several mitigation strategies in Collier County by building affordable, structurally sound, homes with a low flood risk.

SHAWNEE, OK - The Citizen Potawatomi Nation (CPN) tradition teaches respect for nature and how she refurbishes the earth with winds, floods, and ice storms.

NEWCASTLE, OK - After winds in excess of 250 miles per hour bristled through central Oklahoma on May 3, 1999, citizens and business owners were left to contend with $1.5 billion in damages.

GRAND FORKS, ND - There must be something magical about the name "Pheonix." In mythology, the phoenix bird dies a fiery death every 100 years and a new bird rises from the ashes.

HAYS COUNTY, TX – Every year, approximately eight flood-related fatalities occur in the state of Texas, according to a report published by the Texas Department of Transportation Research and Technology Implementation Office.

ORLEANS PARISH, LA – Following Hurricane Katrina, Congress approved more than $14 billion worth of upgrades to the federal levee system surrounding the New Orleans area, including one of the largest storm surge barriers in the world.

GALVESTON COUNTY, TX – When Hurricane Ike slammed into the City of Galveston, on September 11, 2008, Matt and Lauren Johnson’s home was left with a hole in the roof and an unlivable first floor.

DUNCAN, OK – During 2007, five intense storms, in as many months, tested the resolve of City administrators and residents in Duncan, Oklahoma. Over 100 businesses and homes suffered damage, and numerous pedestrian bridges loosened from their footings.

TOLLESON, AZ - The 91st Avenue Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), located along the Salt River in the City of Phoenix, Arizona, has been at risk from the continued soil erosion of the existing bank.

NEW JERSEY - On October 29, 2012, Superstorm Sandy pushed ashore New Jersey coastline: damaging or destroying 346,000 homes, cutting power to more than 2 million households, taking the lives of 37 people, and flooding a large portion of the state.

SEATTLE, WA - The 2nd Avenue Street Edge Alternative (SEA) Street project was a pilot project undertaken by Seattle Public Utilities to redesign an entire 660-foot block with a number of Low Impact Development (LID) techniques.

KING COUNTY, WA - The State of Washington has considerable experience in dealing with disasters. The most frequently occurring and costly natural hazard in Washington is flooding. Like many Washington communities, King County is subject to a wide range of flood hazards.


CHARLOTTE HARBOR, FL - Hurricane Charley came to Charlotte Harbor one Friday, with winds up to 114 mph, leaving the community stunned. Buildings were destroyed, and streets were filled with debris and downed power lines.

DES MOINES, IA - In June 1998, a storm with winds in excess of 100 miles per hour (mph) caused over $465,000 in damage to the Iowa State Fair complex and the 160- acre campground. Fortunately, no one was hurt, but the potential for disaster and loss of human life was obvious.

RIVERTON, IL – The Sangamon River forms the west boundary of the Village of Riverton, a quaint community that 2,997 residents refer to as home. But the Village of Riverton has had a long flood history.

BIRMINGHAM, AL - The City of Birmingham faces its greatest hazard from flooding associated with severe weather. Birmingham’s high population density and development render parts of the City particularly vulnerable to the effects of flooding.

RAHWAY, NJ - When Hurricane Floyd brought flooding that exceeded the 100-year flood elevation in September 1999, Rahway residents were already living on higher and safer ground.

CAMBRIDGE, OH - "It was a bad situation turned good," said Ron LePage, a buyout participant, in Cambridge, OH. Cambridge, with a population of 13,000, sits at the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in Guernsey County.

LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CA - After the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, the Castaic Union School District conducted a study of the earthquake-related risks.

CLEVELAND, IL - It's just a little winding river in northwestern Illinois, but the Rock River drains a large watershed that includes the Upper Rock, the Pecatonica River in Wisconsin and even as far north as Lake Winnebago.

SCHUYLER FALLS, NY - Severe flooding in the winter of 1996 motivated residents in the Town of Schuyler Falls to move out of flood impacted areas. When the Town refused to be the applicant in the buyout, residents prevailed upon Clinton County to be the buyout applicant.

MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WI – Located at the confluence of the Menomonee River and Underwood Creek, the city of Wauwatosa has had a history of flooding since it was settled in the 1850s.

MAVERICK COUNTY, TX – Shelby Park, located by the Rio Grande River in the city of Eagle Pass, is currently used for fun activities such as soccer, football, and big 4th of July celebrations.

TILLAMOOK, OR – The completion of a building elevation project came none too soon for the tenants of Northport Plaza along U.S. Highway101 north of the city center of Tillamook, Oregon.

MOORE, OK – Don Staley and his family are no strangers to storms and tornados. Their first home was hit by a tornado in October 1998 and suffered minor damage but was destroyed by another tornado on May 3, 1999. They rode out both storms inside the house.

POARCH CREEK INDIAN RESERVATION, AL - The Poarch Creek Indian Reservation, located northwest of the City of Atmore, had a challenging storm water drainage problem. Rain runoff placed property and tribal members at risk to flood damages.

BOWLEYS QUARTERS, MD - Standing in her front yard, her back to the Chesapeake Bay, Brenda Tucker gazed at the collapsed roof marking the spot where Hurricane Isabel's waves crashed through her house, carrying away her 40-year-old cottage’s Florida room and a 30-foot deck.

OTTAWA, IL - Ottawa, Illinois, is located in a beautiful valley at the confluence of the Fox and Illinois Rivers. But it is this location that has caused the City to suffer significant damage from floods.

ARKANSAS – A common FEMA project in rural areas is the repair or rebuilding of unpaved roads.

MOORHEAD, MN - Located in northwestern Minnesota, the City of Moorhead lies along the Red River of the North and experiences repetitive flooding. In 1993, the City experienced its fifth damaging flood in the past 20 years, damaging several homes.

COLORADO SPRINGS, CO - In June 2012, the Waldo Canyon Fire burned more than 18,000 acres and destroyed 347 homes. Currently, it is the most costly fire in Colorado history, with estimated insured losses of $454 million.

WICKENBURG, AZ - North Wickenburg is home to close to 100 families that are in the middle to low-income group. These residences were in the floodway, Cassandro Wash, which was the oldest part of the city. The community experienced severe flooding many times.

HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CA - On April 25 and 26, 1992, three powerful earthquakes rocked the Cape Mendocino area of Northern California. This series of quakes, measuring 7.1, 6.2 and 6.5 respectively, emanated from a complex geological area known as the Mendocino Triple Junction.

CALIFORNIA – Hazus-MH is playing a central role in the vulnerability analysis of over 1,300 hospitals that were built in California before 1973. The findings of this analysis have significant cost implications for the state.


INDIANAPOLIS, IN - The CHUG (Central HAZUS Users Group) provides a means of collaboration between HAZUS-MH users within FEMA Region 5. This group looks at software challenges, HAZUS-MH projects, and the overall general use of HAZUS-MH software.

The Community Assistance Program, State Support Services Element (CAP-SSSE) Cooperative Agreement, is a funding mechanism that supports States’ floodplain management efforts and flood reduction measures through local communities’ participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

MOTT, ND - Surrounded by farmland on the prairie of southwest North Dakota, Mott, with a population of about 800, offers a Norman Rockwell, small-town lifestyle –one that is idyllic and a little old-fashioned.

KOKOMO, IN - You can almost tell by its name a creek called Wildcat is going to be hard to tame. Every few years, an area in Kokomo, Indiana gets inundated when the creek jumps its banks. In 2003, the flood was said to be the worst in 90 years. In 2005, predictions were even more dire.

BROOME COUNTY, NY - Lourdes Hospital, located in the picturesque city of Binghamton (pop. 47,376) and surrounded by rolling hills and rivers, averted major storm damage thanks to hazard mitigation and a new floodwall.


COBB COUNTY, GA - Whenever it rained more than two inches, Bill Higgins’ phone would ring. “My basement’s flooding again!

LOWER MORELAND TOWNSHIP, PA – Chestnut Street homes located near Pennypack Creek, dating to the early 1900s, and the nearby Garden Condos built in the 1960s shared a history of significant flooding.

BUTLER COUNTY, KS – Historical Flooding, dating back as far as the 1930s, kept many homes in the City of Augusta and the town of Andover on the repetitive flooding list. Floods resulted from a major river near one community and a creek near the other.

VAN BUREN COUNTY, AR – On Feb. 5, 2008, a tornado wreaked havoc on the town of Clinton, Arkansas, leaving area residents in utter dismay. Fearing its wrath, some of the residents sought safety in storm shelters.

CENTRALIA, WA - Approximately every five years, heavy winter rains force the Chehalis and Skookumchuck Rivers outside their banks, flooding as many as 600 homes and businesses throughout the City of Centralia.

LEON VALLEY, TX – Leon Valley, TX has had its share of flooding events. Located in Central Texas within Northwest San Antonio, it is a community that has taken a proactive approach to keeping its citizens safe.

KEYSER, WV - Continued heavy rains in left the residents of the City of Keyser with frequent damages from excess ground water. The undersized and aged drain system was unable to process the runoff from heavy rains and flooded homes, property, and streets in the area.

ELK GROVE, CA – In one year and on one acre, a weedy vacant lot in Elk Grove, California, was converted into one of the most comprehensive demonstration rain gardens in the state.

EAU CLAIRE, WI - Historically flooding from the Chippewa River took its toll on residents of the Forest Street neighborhood in the City of Eau Claire, Wisconsin.

DEER PARK, TX - Located in southeast Texas, the City of Deer Park is in close proximity to Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The City’s population is approximately 28,000 within 15 square miles of land comprised of residential, commercial, and industrial zones properties.

EL PASO COUNTY, CO – Stormwater Management has traditionally been the responsibility of local governments. However, with management practices becoming more complex, it has warranted the attention and involvement of both the State and Federal governments.


CHICAGO, IL - In August of 1997, the City of Chicago experienced flooding and sewer back-up damage during a torrential rainstorm. The flood caused hardship and property loss for over 35,000 City residents.

BELLEVILLE, IL - The City of Belleville is located across the Mississippi River from St. Louis, Missouri. The City experiences repetitive flooding along Richland Creek in various locations identified as 100-year floodplain.

ARVADA, CO – Arvada City Officials have been working together on mitigation projects that have paid off for the community.


MONTAGUE, MI - Thanks to Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) funds, the site of an old factory in a once neglected part of the small Michigan city of Montague was razed with intentions to create a park in its place.

ST. PETER, MN - The Minnesota River covered Highway 99 in Le Sueur County in the spring of 2001. The high water caused the closing of the busy roadway that crosses the river and made the bridge from the unincorporated community of East St. Peter to the city of St. Peter impassable.

AUSTIN, TX – After years of serious flooding, the city of Dallas made a decision to reduce flood risk by redesigning an important ecosystem located in the heart of the city.

DEKALB COUNTY, GA – Jackson Square condominium complex sits on the banks of the North Fork Peachtree Creek in DeKalb County, Georgia. Constructed in the 1960s, each of the original 11 buildings contains eight, two-story townhouse-style rental apartments.

GREENBRIER COUNTY, WV - Every time heavy rain fell in western Greenbrier County, West Virginia, two properties in low-lying areas along Anjean Road in Rupert and Route 60 in Charmco suffered serious flooding. The homes were always at risk.

CHEROKEE COUNTY, IA – For generations, families living alongside the Little Sioux River in Cherokee, Iowa have known that heavy rainfall would cause the river to swell its bounds and force some measure of floodwaters into their homes.

MIAMI-DADE COUNTY, FL - Frank Reddish, the Emergency Management Coordinator for Miami-Dade County, asserts that installing storm shutters is key way to protect a home or business from storm damage.

ESSEX, COLCHESTER, AND MILTON, VT - The Vermont highway system can be vulnerable to flooding if proper mitigation techniques are not employed. Vermont has a high proportion of major roads that are gravel. Typically these roads follow watercourses between steep rocky hills.

LOS ANGELES, CA - Anheuser-Busch operates a large brewery just a few miles from the epicenter of the January 17, 1994 Northridge Earthquake. The facility serves the company's markets throughout the Southwest and Pacific regions.

WYOMING COUNTY, WV - In 2004, when Vance’s Trailer Park in southern West Virginia flooded, Dean Meadows, Wyoming County Emergency Services Director, knew he had to do something to help.

MEIGS COUNTY, OH - Since 1964, Ohio has received 28 Presidential disaster declarations—22 of which were for flooding. To address the issue of flood risk, the State of Ohio has taken aggressive measures to assess areas of vulnerability and reduce the impact of flooding to those areas.

BRAZORIA COUNTY, TX – Located in the Gulf Coast region of Texas, Brazoria County is among a number of counties that are part of the region known as the Texas Coastal Bend.

BOROUGH OF STATEN ISLAND, NY - On July 8, 1999, the Borough of Staten Island, signed an agreement with FEMA under the Cooperating Technical Communities (now Cooperating Technical Partners [CTP]) initiative.

MADISON, WV - Jack and Elvonna Bowyer had flood insurance, but when severe flooding of the Spruce and Pond Fork Rivers dumped seven inches of water in their first floor and 12 inches of water in their garage, they were at their wits end.

SEATTLE, WA - Deep inside the earth's crust, pressures are building that eventually will result in an earthquake of epic proportions. Deep inside Boeing, a few good people are busily tying everything down. One of them, Doug Marsh, became a believer after the Kobe, Japan, earthquake in 1995.

BLACKSTONE, VA - After a 1998 ice storm wreaked havoc on power lines, cables, trees, and cut power to Blackstone residents for hours, town manager Larry Palmore decided it was enough. "Then last year [2002] we had another ice storm and a couple of small twisters. That was enough.

MCGEHEE, AR - The City of McGehee has experienced flooding in the residential area east of and adjacent to Black Pond Slough many times over the last 10 years. Up to 25 houses in this area have received repetitive damages of more than $1.1 million during this period.

SAN FRANCISCO, CA - Genentech, Inc., is a leading biotechnology company that discovers, develops, manufactures and markets human pharmaceuticals for significant unmet medical needs. Twelve of the currently marketed biotechnology products stem from Genentech science.

FALMOUTH, ME – Two major storms, Hurricane Bob in 1991 and a severe storm in 1996, damaged significant parts of Brook Road in Falmouth, Maine.

BETHANY, WV - The Dixon family has struggled against nature’s awesome power twice. Hurricane Frances (2004) caused Buffalo Creek to overflow and reach their porch.

DOUGLASVILLE, GA – Robin Wagner remembers waking in the middle of the night more than once to the sounds of pounding rain and crashing thunder. Each time meant she had to grab her flashlight and rush outside to check the height of the creek that ran behind her house.

GURNEE, IL - As far as natural hazards go, the Village of Gurnee in Lake County, Illinois, is primarily affected by the flooding of the Des Plaines River. In the autumn of 1986, Gurnee suffered from the most devastating flood in its history.

WASHINGTON - What do Starbucks Corporation, the Boeing Company, and the Friday Harbor Flower Shop have in common?

ASTORIA, OR - In 2000, Randy Stemper, life-long resident of Astoria and owner of Astoria Builders Supply Co., decided to design a new building for his business.

PORT CHARLOTTE, FL - After the whipping winds and rain of Hurricane Charley subsided, residents of Port Charlotte ventured out to inspect the damage.

CHARLESTON, WV - Reaching people affected by the storms and flooding and providing them with disaster-related educational information at home building supply stores is the aim of a Febderal emergency Management Agency (FEMA) outreach program.


LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CA – For Karen Stevens, her family, and neighbors in the Southern Oaks section of Stevenson Ranch, it was a blessing that the planned development where they live has a 200-foot-wide greenbelt around it designed to ward off wildfires.

BOLIVAR PENINSULA, TX - Hurricane Ike tore across this 33-mile-long arm of land that juts out into Galveston Bay, leaving devastation in its path. Unprotected by a seawall or other barrier, the peninsula suffered arguably the worst of Ike’s fury.

WATAUGA COUNTY, NC – The Guy Ford Road Bridge in Watauga County, NC sits 4 miles from the Tennessee border on State Route 1200. First constructed in 1962, the original wooden bridge was replaced in June 2004 with a two-lane, cored concrete slab covered by a 2-inch asphalt overlay.

CHARLESTON, SC - In the fall of 2002, a magnitude 4.32 earthquake was measured in the Charleston area. That earthquake pales in comparison to the magnitude 7.7 earthquake that struck Charleston on August 31, 1886. Could a magnitude 7.7 earthquake strike again?

US Virgin Islands - After Hurricane Hugo, a Category 4 storm, swept through the islands in 1989 leaving near total devastation in its wake, FEMA and the Government of the Virgin Islands worked together to identify measures to mitigate damage from storms.

BROWNSVILLE, TX - When Hurricane Dolly came in the summer of 2008, Brownsville was ready with an ingenious disaster defense that kept hundreds of homes from flooding.

BIBB COUNTY, AL – In 2004, when Hurricane Ivan caused severe devastation in much of Alabama, Bibb County residents knew they needed a community safe room. However, just one community safe room was not sufficient for the county’s 21,000 citizens.

PASCAGOULA, MS – Laura Watson’s house on Pine Street in Pascagoula, Mississippi, has suffered damage over the years from repetitive flooding caused by heavy rains and hurricanes. Concerned that she would have to leave the home and community she loves, Ms.

GAYS MILLS, WI — In June 2008, when the Kickapoo River in Wisconsin overflowed after a deluge, homes around town were submerged in six feet or more of brownish water. But not Mason Evans’ and his wife’s, Diane, home.

RANCHO BERNARDO, CA - Bette Blankenship became familiar with defensible space and other ways to mitigate her property from the effects of wildfires through brochures her children brought home from school.

ST. TAMMANY PARISH, LA – Homeowner Sharon Pfister experienced the wrath of Hurricane Katrina firsthand when it made landfall in Louisiana on Aug. 29, 2005, battering her home and leaving neighborhoods in ruins. The storm surge from the Category 3 hurricane impacted the entire 57-mile St.

JEFFERSON COUNTY, AL – When an EF-5 tornado struck the western part of Jefferson County, Alabama, near Birmingham, on April 8, 1998, Rebecca Henderson and her family had taken refuge under her mobile home. Damage to Henderson’s home was major.

WASHINGTON, DC - One of the critical lessons from the 1994 Northridge earthquake was the unacceptable performance of steel moment-resisting frame construction. In response to that performance, FEMA established the FEMA/SAC Steel Moment Resisting Frames Project.

San Juan, PR - Family heirlooms, furniture and appliances under floodwaters for a week is an experience Arlyn Alcaraz and her family would rather forget. As residents of the floodprone Ocean Park for 50 years, the Alcaraz family was recurrently affected by flood events.

Bayamón, PR - Flood-related experiences left an indelible impression on Nelson Irizarry and his family in Los Dominicos, Bayamon, Puerto Rico. Once, while taking a dinner break during the clean up of their flood damaged home, the water started rising again and they had to start all over.

ILLINOIS – After many Illinois river communities experienced the devastation of the Great Midwest Flood of 1993, it became obvious that floodplains are easily reclaimed by rivers following severe weather events.

SANGAMON COUNTY, IL – In May 2002, major flooding occurred in the county when the South Fork of the Sangamon River reached the highest level in a 50-year period and the Sangamon River exceeding the 100-year flood elevation.

BEE COUNTY, TX - In 1996, Jason and Alice Dickenson purchased an old, 1,800 square-foot wood-frame home in the unincorporated town of Skidmore, Texas. They were unaware of the zoning, building restrictions, community ordinances, and the need for homeowners insurance.

ORANGE, TX – Fearing the wrath of Hurricane Rita, staff at Memorial Hermann Baptist Hospital in this southeast Texas city hurriedly evacuated patients a little more than 20 miles away to the hospital’s affiliate in Beaumont, Texas. Their actions came just in time.

MYRTLE GROVE, LA - Gayle and Warren Lawrence evacuated to their son’s home in Texas just before Hurricane Katrina made landfall. Watching the television coverage, they expected their new home in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana, to be destroyed when they returned.

NEW ORLEANS, LA – When educators at Tulane University returned to campus after Hurricane Katrina evacuations, they faced the storm’s devastation.

CORAL GABLES, FL - The metropolitan areas of Southeast Florida were carved almost entirely out of the Everglades.

KAMPSVILLE, IL - As a small tourist-based community in west central Illinois, the Village of Kampsville is located about 15 miles north of the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers and is along the Meeting of the Great Rivers National Scenic Byway designated in 1999.

OAKLAND, CA - When the Loma Prieta earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area in 1989, Kaiser Permanente, a health care organization founded in 1948, experienced damage to its administrative building in Oakland, which was evacuated and closed, and to its Santa Clara Medical Center, where the ch

FRANKLIN COUNTY, KY - When Grey Mandeel was hired as the Safety and Compliance Officer for Kentucky State University (KSU) in 2005, his first priority was assessing the entire campus and for potential risks facing the faculty and students.

JOHNSON COUNTY, KY - Paintsville, located in primarily rural Johnson County, Kentucky having experienced difficulty in the past notifying residents of emergencies, decided to take action to save lives in the future.

MERRIAM, KS - Located in Eastern Kansas, just south of Kansas City, Johnson County is one of the more populated counties in the State and has flooding and flash flooding problems from Turkey Creek, Indian Creek, Rock Creek, and Brush Creek.

JEFFERSON PARISH, LA - Within Jefferson Parish, flooding may occur during any season of the year. Jefferson Parish is bordered by Lake Pontchatrain to the north and the Gulf of Mexico to the south.

BOSTON, MA - The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum was inundated by flood waters and sewage in October of 1996 causing damage to their basement areas; in particular, the ventilation/air-handling system.

WALKER COUNTY, TX – In 2005 Hurricane Rita pummeled many cities causing a mass exodus of people and animals. Some found their way to Huntsville, Texas, a designated shelter hub.

WEBSTER COUNTY, MS– After observing widespread and repeated damage caused by what seemed to be an increasing frequency of tornadoes in northern Mississippi and, in particular, in Webster and surrounding counties, the Reverend Coy Fulgham decided it was time to take steps to protect his family fro

WEATHERFORD, TX – Reliable emergency warning systems are much needed assets in warning citizens of natural or man-made disasters. Emergency management officials in Tyler County quickly found out just how advantageous a warning system could be.

BAY ST. LOUIS, MS – After seeing their home totally demolished during Hurricane Katrina, one family decided to rebuild so they would never again endure such destruction.


ROSEVILLE, CA – The City of Roseville has experienced repetitive flooding in 1986, 1995, and 1997 from several small creeks. Damages from the 1986 floods were extensive and severe.

FORT PIERCE, FL - Hurricane Frances struck Florida’s east coast September 5, 2004, with winds up to 115 mph. Many homes in the Fort Pierce area sustained moderate to severe damage, but the “Hurricane House” training center was hardly scratched.


PUNTA GORDA, FL – When Bob and Robin Leonard built their home in 2004 on a canal off Pirate Harbor in Charlotte County they wanted a beautiful, low-maintenance building. They chose a highly engineered, above code steel-panel construction that would endure a major storm.

BAY ST. LOUIS, MS – John and Allison Anderson moved back into their home 50 days after Hurricane Katrina struck their community on August 29, 2005, with a 29-foot storm surge and reported winds of 130 miles per hour (mph).

HOUMA, LA – Elevating a structure decreases its vulnerability to damage from floodwaters.

MUSKINGUM COUNTY, OH - Once was more than enough for the McDonoughs.

SKAGIT COUNTY, WA - When Mischke built his rental home a year ago he elevated it a little higher than County regulations demanded. So when the October 20 and 21 flooding came to Skagit County, the home was a safe 5 feet above the floodwaters.


HOOPERS ISLAND MD - Ray and Caroline Warehime bought their waterfront property in the early 1990s with the plan of building a home for relaxation and future retirement.

DAUPHIN ISLAND, AL - By going beyond the required elevation for their home, Beth and Stan Houston were spared flood damages from Hurricane Ivan. Their home is located on Dauphin Island, a narrow barrier island south of Mobile.

MONMOUTH COUNTY, NJ – Frank Gembicki, a homeowner in Neptune, New Jersey, was in the hospital as Hurricane Sandy approached the New Jersey coast. He was not concerned about his home though, as he had elevated it in 2010.

SEATTLE, WA - The Phinney Neighborhood Association (PNA) is a very proactive community group located in the City of Seattle. For many years the organization has sponsored programs and activities that have built a strong sense of community.


AUSTIN, MN - After Richard and Helen Johnson were flooded the first time, they knew that participating in the City's buyout project was the best option for them. They waited patiently. When they were offered a buyout of their flood prone home, they were thrilled.

DAUPHIN ISLAND, AL – Dauphin Island has created a more hurricane-resistant community. Property acquisitions have taken place as mitigation measures to protect renters, owners, and businesses from frequent flooding caused by hurricanes and storms.

MONROE COUNTY, MS – When the strongest tornado to hit Mississippi in more than 50 years tore through the small town of Smithville on April 27, 2011, 16-year old Audrey Herren and her younger sister Cassidy, 11, knew what to do, and it probably saved their lives.

GULF SHORES, AL - Park Superintendent Hugh Branyon remembers the horrible aftermath Hurricane Frederic had on the Gulf State Park lakeside cabins in 1979. All the cabins were destroyed leaving only their chimneys behind.

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY, IL – Established in 1827, Sidney is a township in the ChampaignUrbana metropolitan area. As far back as residents can recall, the village has been confronted with flooding issues.

ALLEGANY COUNTY, MD - "NAILS" is a program to repair and improve the homes of needy homeowners. Hazard mitigation projects for victims of disaster receive priority consideration.

YARDLEY, PA - In April 2005, both the Delaware River and the Delaware Canal overflowed their banks. They met at Tessie Reading’s house. Tessie is no stranger to floods.

SHOREACRES, TX – In 2002, when David and Cynthia Garza decided to build their 2,200-square-foot dream home, they had no idea the road to achieving their dream would be paved with building codes.

MIAMI, FL – The fanciful, brightly colored exterior of the Miami Children’s Hospital (MCH) belies the inherent strength of the facility, which can be used as a medical shelter during hurricanes.

HARRIS COUNTY, TX – A nightmare, to put it mildly, is how Houstonians refer to the reign of Tropical Storm Allison. In June 2001 she ruled with a vengeance, creating massive flooding.

TAMPA, FL - Tampa entrepreneur Bob Thomas, with the help of his friend Olin Mott, was determined to create the world’s greatest horse show facility. His vision, persistence, and dedication helped create what would become the Bob Thomas Equestrian Center, a worldclass venue for horse shows.

HOPKINSVILLE, KY – Nestled at the base of the Pennyrile Region in southwestern Kentucky, Hopkinsville community officials and residents know first-hand the importance of flood mitigation. Flooding from the Little River has caused 18 major flood events in Christian County in the last 100 years.

DURHAM, NH - In October of 1996 the Hood House on the campus of the University of New Hampshire (UNH) at Durham flooded, causing $11,848 in damages. Damages were held to a minimum because of the swift action of the University Building and Grounds personnel.

HONOLULU, HI - When the Kiholo Bay earthquake (measuring Mw6.7) struck early on a Sunday morning in October 2006, the shaking was felt on the islands of Hawaii, Oahu and Maui. Seven minutes later, another powerful earthquake occurred, this one measuring Mw6.0.

COTTONWOOD, AZ – Arizona’s Verde River showed its dangerous side by flooding four times during the winter of 2004-2005. But for the most part, the Cottonwood homeowners along Comanche Drive with front-row views of the river escaped serious damage.

LIVINGSTON COUNTY, MI - The six Mobile homes that sit on a small peninsula near the HiLand Lake and the Portage River were purchased through the Hazard Mitigation Program Grant (HMPG) in order to eliminate the emotional and financial hardships that would afflict the homes’ residents following pot

TROY, VT - Just a short drive on River Road southeast of North Troy is an area adjacent to the Missisquoi River that floods every year due to spring thaws and summer’s heavy rains.

FREEPORT, TX – Hurricane Ike rudely interrupted Frank Bartolomeo and his team of Habitat for Humanity volunteers just as they were finishing the framing of their latest house in Freeport.

Guayama, PR - Born and raised in Barrio Puerto Jobos in Guayama, Miguel Flores and his wife Evangelia Diaz have seen floodwaters rise into their home so many times they barely can number them.

WILMINGTON, DE – After 1999’s Hurricane Floyd destroyed two trestles and damaged several others, the Wilmington and Western Railroad (W&WRR) decided to upgrade the lost trestles with steel instead of going back to wood.

ADA, MN - The small town of Ada, population 1657, lies in the flat fertile farmlands of northwest Minnesota. The Wild Rice River meanders its way through the countryside a mile outside of town, traveling fifteen miles to empty into the northward heading Red River.

GRAND RAPIDS, MI – Over $1 million of combined federal and state grants helped fund mitigation measures that protect a city neighborhood and significantly reduced their exposure to flood damage. Flood insurance for more than 100 homeowners can now be purchased at greatly reduced premiums.

MARYLAND – The Hazus Multi-Hazard (Hazus-MH) flood model is being used by the State of Maryland as part of a comprehensive vulnerability assessment of the state’s built environment to riverine and coastal flooding.

MARYLAND - Maryland has had its share of major flood events since the first recorded major flood event in May of 1860. Since 1933, the state has sought to ensure public safety from flooding through the regulation of development projects proposed for the floodplain.

COLUMBIA, SC – As we learn more about the dynamic arena of disaster preparedness, the realities of just how little we understand about the potential hazards we face reveal a need for increased focus on the educational front of this evolving field.

MAPLETON, OR - Located in the unincorporated coastal region of Lane County along the Siuslaw River, Mapleron has experienced flooding most recently in December 1997. This logging town has been subject to recurring floods throughout its history.

MANDEVILLE, LA - In the City of Mandeville, approximately 80 percent of the incorporated area is within a Special Flood Hazard Area, Zone A and Zone V.

PUNTA GORDA, FL - A church pastor and his congregation are thankful for hurricane resistant features of the Worship Center at the First Baptist Church of Punta Gorda.

CHEROKEE COUNTY, AL – After Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and several subsequent tornadoes wreaked destruction upon areas surrounding Leesburg, AL, Mayor Edward Mackey decided his town needed a safe place for its residents.

PLYMOUTH, NH - The Town of Plymouth faced with repeated flooding in the downtown

TRAVIS COUNTY, TX – In 2013, floods hit Austin in the early hours of Halloween morning killing five people and damaging more than 500 homes. Some parts of the city received nearly 10 inches of rain in 24 hours. Austin’s rivers, creeks, and streams rose to historic levels.

TEXAS - How can communities maintain accurate, up-to-date flood hazard data? That is the quest of FEMA and the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) in their Cooperative Technical Partner (CTP) agreement, signed in 1999.

TUCKER AND RANDOLPH COUNTIES, WV - Tucker and Randolph Counties stretch for more than 75 miles along the northern fringe of the Allegheny Mountains in eastern West Virginia.

BATON ROUGE, LA - Twenty years ago, after leveling much of south Florida, Hurricane Andrew slammed into Louisiana. Although it caused widespread destruction, the hurricane had at least one positive effect.

MASON COUNTY, WA - The Skokomish River valley experiences widespread flooding several times each year as heavy rains and mountain snow runoff swell the river outside of its banks.


CHALMETTE, LA – Nearly 50 years ago, Hurricane Betsy hit Chalmette’s Village Square area hard. Over the years, brutal rainstorms washed out neighborhoods. Then came the ruthless 2005 KatrinaRita season — which rendered nearly all the homes in the Village Square area unlivable.

MILLER COUNTY, AR – The vicious cycle of “damage-repair” was all too familiar a scenario for Judge Roy McNatt and his road foreman Gary Roberts.

HOLMES COUNTY, FL - Away from the Florida Panhandle’s urban areas, residents travel on dirt roads. The red clay roads of Holmes County, quietly located between Pensacola and Tallahassee, pass by country homes and farmsteads and through woods and pastures.

NEW ORLEANS, LA – Torrance Green’s construction company had nearly completed two homes in New Orleans when Hurricane Katrina struck in August 2005.

JEFFERSON CITY, MO - The record-setting and unprecedented flooding that lasted from the spring of 1993 into the early part of 1994 served as the catalyst for Missouri governments to look for solutions to the devastation and suffering caused by the massive floods.

MILLVALE BOROUGH, PA - During a period of extremely heavy snowfall and rains in March of 1994, occupants of Millvale Borough complained of feeling movement in their homes.


LAWRENCE COUNTY, OH - As coordinator of seven different mitigation projects after extensive flooding along the Ohio River in 1997, Doug Cade of Lawrence County Community Action, was primarily involved in acquiring and demolishing severely damaged properties.

WHATLEY, MA - Modern bio-engineering methods protect the drinking water for half of the quiet rural community of Whately, Massachusetts. This scenic town within the Connecticut River watershed is widely known for its agricultural setting and historic Main Street.

WESTMORELAND COUNTY, PA - One of Westmoreland County’s natural treasures, Mill Creek, recently got even better after some much-needed improvements that stabilized its stream-bank and slowed the amount of sediment entering this exceptional waterway.

MICHIGAN - The State has been taking an active role in hazard mitigation for several years, and has increased its coordination by developing an interagency group to review and prioritize projects for the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) funding available after a Presidential disaster declar

CHARLESTON, SC – The City of Charleston is known for its genteel beauty, conveying images of horsedrawn carriages strolling along cobblestone streets, ancient oak trees clothed in evergreen Spanish moss, and corridors of antebellum homes with open-air porches all shielded by a sea wall, appropria

TIKI ISLAND, TX – When Hurricane Ike (2008) was bearing down on his town in late summer 2008, Mayor Charlie Everts knew it would be Tiki’s toughest test. Townspeople had been working for years to prepare for a Hurricane Ike.

WYOMING COUNTY, WV - The riverfront properties nestled along Laurel Creek in the Laurel Estates and Lillyton area of Matheny, West Virginia were home to 16 families that had suffered repeated flood damage.

LOUISIANA - In the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, much HAZUS work was being done in the CADGIS lab, on the campus of Louisiana State University.

DESTREHAN, LA – Since the invention of plumbing, residents of cities in flood-prone areas have faced the same smelly hazard: sewage backflow.


MANVILLE AND SOMERSET, NJ - The Borough of Manville is located in Somerset County in the northern region of New Jersey. Over the years, the Lost Valley neighborhood in Manville experienced repetitive flooding, dating back to Hurricane Doria in 1971.

NEBRASKA  - Through the Cooperating Technical Partnership program, the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR) developed the Large Area Mapping Initiative to map unstudied areas in the state as a means of providing flood hazard data to all users.

MCDOWELL COUNTY, WV – On June 20, 2010, several inches of heavy rain fell on the steep mountain slopes that surround the Elkhorn Creek Watershed, causing severe landslides and flooding in McDowell County, West Virginia.

ESTES PARK, CO – A land use ordinance protected several Estes Park buildings during the September 2013 flooding.

LAGUNA BEACH, CA – Laguna Beach has been using goats as part of its fuel reduction and vegetation management program since the early 1990s. City Manager Ken Frank got the idea from a similar program in the San Francisco Bay area.

BATON ROUGE, LA – The hurricanes, tropical storms and floods that have struck Louisiana over the decades have destroyed thousands of homes, but better building techniques on display at Louisiana State University are meant to make that level of destruction a topic for the history books rather than

La PORTE, TX – If grades were given for mitigation efforts, the La Porte Independent School District would receive an A+ on the mitigation report card.

LA JUNTA, CO - The City of La Junta's salvage yard had been operating since the late 1960s and had become a blight within the community. The property was under water whenever there was high water in the Arkansas River. The owner felt that the problem was going to get worse over the years.

SANTA MONICA, CA - Kramer Motors has been in business in Santa Monica for 40 years. The business originally had six facilities in the Santa Monica area. The Northridge earthquake that shook southern California early on the morning of January 17, 1994, damaged all six facilities.

TARRANT COUNTY, TX – When it comes to disaster preparedness, residents in North Central Texas have access to a wealth of information. As a result, citizens in North Central Texas will “KnoWhat2Do” in the event of a wide-scale disaster or crisis situation.

KEY BISCAYNE, FL - In 1992, Hurricane Andrew swept through southern Florida. The resulting storm surge and flooding destroyed a large portion of the Village of Key Biscayne and demonstrated the need for a plan to cope with flood hazards.

KENNEBUNK, ME - Sitting on the banks of the Mousam River in Kennebunk, Maine on a lazy summer’s day, you could never imagine the torrent that repeatedly floods the Intervale neighborhood.

MINNESOTA - Minnesota is known for its inclement weather. But even longtime residents were taken aback by the ferocity of such an early winter storm when it began Halloween night of 1991. First rain drenched southern Minnesota. Then the temperature dropped and it changed to ice and snow.

WYOMING COUNTY, PA - The Lazy Brook development was constructed in the late 1960s and early 1970s on farm land along the Tunkhannock Creek. The 89 homes in the development had experienced flooding seven times since 1976.

MIAMI, OK - Ten Native American tribes call land in Oklahoma’s Ottawa County home. In 1997, two of those tribes – the Modoc and Miami – created an historic partnership to build The Stables Casino in the City of Miami.

ILLINOIS – The Illinois Association for Floodplain and Stormwater Management (IAFSM) created the Rapid Assistance Flood Team (RAFT) in 2015, developing a collaborative approach to assist local officials who may be overwhelmed by the scope of the flooding and need assistance compl

SHARP COUNTY, AR – Beginning October 29, 2009, the State of Arkansas experienced severe storms and flooding which resulted in the December 3, 2009, presidential disaster declaration for 37 counties for Public Assistance (PA).

WEATHERFORD, TX - A home on the river is a picturesque scene except when it’s marred by the aftermath of massive flooding. Larry and Jenanne Thompson have returned home following several flooding events to find their home virtually unscathed by the creeping waters of the Brazos River.

MINNESOTA - The State has taken a pro-active role in providing some relief to communities that encounter blowing and drifting snow, resulting in hazardous travel,

economic losses, and extremely high plowing costs in the winter.


LOS ANGELES, CA - The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) is second in size only to the New York City School District. At present, the District is composed of over 900 schools, serving over 800,000 students, and employing 57,000 full-time and 24,000 parttime staff.

INDEPENDENCE, IA - The scenic Wapsipinicon (“Wapsi”) River meanders into the City of Independence along low-laying banks that are shouldered by an historic rock mill, grassy parks with walking paths, and a few scattered homes.

GREYBULL, WY - In August 1998, the Wyoming National Guard, 133rd Engineering Company, completed a streambank stablization project adjacent to the Town of Greybull, Wyoming, on the Big Horn River.

LAKE COUNTY, MN - Loss of power can be devastating at any time, but when the annual average temperature reaches only 40 degrees Fahrenheit, providing power to Minnesota customers can be life saving.

HAMPTON, VA - Matina Howarth always thought hurricanes needed to be taken seriously, having lived in New England as a child when Hurricane Bob (1991) hit.

HATTIESBURG, MS - When Hurricane Katrina struck the Mississippi Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, businesses were damaged or destroyed, houses were reduced to debris and concrete slabs, and communities were left stunned. One business hit hard was Hudson’s Salvage Stores.

LAS VEGAS, NV - With an estimated 5,000 new residents arriving each month, Las Vegas and its surrounding area is the fastest growing community in the western United States. More than 1.2 million people live in the area, which lies at the center of a desert valley bounded by mountain ranges.

LONGMONT, CO - Only months before the flood of September 2013, the city of Longmont completed a mitigation project that kept a community of residents dry and resulted in a net savings of an estimated $4 million dollars.

COLORADO SPRINGS, CO – Maintaining safe roadways in an area that faces both flooding and wildfires has been a challenge since the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in El Paso County.

DARE COUNTY, NC - All along the North Carolina coast, individual homeowners and whole communities have increasingly realized the persistent threat to life and property posed by major storms and hurricanes.

KINSTON, NC - In 1999, Hurricane Floyd had decreased in strength to a Category 2 hurricane before reaching North Carolina’s coast; but the City of Kinston was still devastated by severe flooding.

TULSA, OK - Floods have devastated the City of Tulsa many times, an average of about once every 5 years. Through the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) and the Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Program, the City has taken measures to mitigate against these costly floods.

PETERSBURG, IL - On a hot day in late June of 2002, there was a flurry of activity in the floodplain of the Sangamon River in Petersburg, Illinois. It wasn't flood fighting this time.

WATSEKA, IL – The call for assistance went out February 25, 2018, while water was still surrounding many homes in Watseka, Illinois. Much of Watseka flooded as the Iroquois River and Sugar Creek reached record levels.

BEE COUNTY, TX - When Dennis DeWitt assumed the role of floodplain administrator for Bee County, he had no idea what duties were attached to the position. He had not been on the job a year when he faced a rude awakening.

BLUEFIELD, VA - Bluefield wasn’t always known by that name. Eighty years after its third change, Bluefield is undergoing more changes. "Two creeks collide in the middle of town," according to Todd Day, Public Works Director for the City of Bluefield, Virginia.

ROOSEVELT, AZ - In 1911 the Bureau of Reclamation constructed Theodore Roosevelt Lake, the first major structure constructed under the Federal Reclamation Act, formed by the construction of a masonry dam on the Salt River, submerging about 10 miles of the original river bed beneath the waters.

STORY COUNTY, IA – The Maple-Willow-Larch Resident Halls, located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU), provide housing for nearly 1,600 students.

NOME, AK — A powerful and extremely dangerous storm of near record magnitude impacted the west coast of Alaska during November, 2011. The storm surge and blizzard conditions impacted forty-three communities. This was to be a major test for a recent investment in Nome’s critical infrastructure.

KEY WEST, FL - The southernmost city of the United States, Key West has a population of 25,700, and the economy revolves around tourism (averages of 9,500 each day), commercial fishing, a vibrant art community, and US Navy and US Coast Guard operations.

WAUKON, IA - In Spring 2008, the banks of the Upper Iowa River were damaged by severe storms and flooding.

FERNDALE, CA – The City of Ferndale is a small dairy community located in Humboldt County's Eel River Valley. Historic Victorian homes line its downtown streets. Francis Creek meanders through the city, attracting ducks and picnickers.

MODOC COUNTY, CA - Annually, the Bidwell Paiute Tribe experienced damage to their reservation from heavy storms. Their outdated dam and gutters were ill-equipped to handle the heavy amounts of rain.

YOUNTVILLE, CA – On New Year’s weekend, 2005-2006, Northern California suffered a severe winter storm that dropped six to eight inches of rain in 48 hours in Napa County. The storm followed a two week period in which 12 to 14 inches of rain fell overall.

BARTHOLOWMEW COUNTY, IN – Columbus Regional Hospital, the only hospital serving Bartholomew County, Indiana, is now protected from future flooding thanks to hazard mitigation and a floodwall with passive floodgates.


MORGAN COUNTY, OH - When it comes to repairing or replacing disaster-damaged infrastructure, Federal and state recovery officials look for cost effective opportunities to reduce damages in future events.

STARKEVILLE, NY - Beginning in late June 2006, a storm of major proportions crawled across the eastern United States. Rainfalls broke records, creeks and streams climbed their banks and spilled into communities, and rivers crested far above flood stage.

MALIBU, CA – When the Canyon Fire came roaring through Malibu Canyon in October 2007, Pepperdine University’s Malibu campus was ready.

MONTGOMERY, VT - In the northern tier of Vermont close to the Canadian border, the rural town of Montgomery is home to one of Vermont's treasures.

BEADLE COUNTY, SD - On a drive across the mostly flat, seemingly endless prairie of South Dakota, a few features are likely to stand out – the road ahead, the vastness of the land and sky, and the rhythmic repetition of power poles next to the road.

WARNER ROBINS, GA - Originally named Wellston, Warner Robins changed its name to match that of the military base that was founded near the town in the early 1940s. That Army Air Corps depot has grown over the years to become Warner Robins Air Force Base.


JACKSON COUNTY, WI - Following a devastating flood in 1993, the city of Black River Falls, located in Jackson County, Wisconsin, incorporated a concept known as “freeboard” in reconstructing their levee.

FORT FAIRFIELD, ME – The spring of 2005 witnessed another massive ice jam and flooding on the Aroostook River in northern Maine. This time, the residents of Fort Fairfield remained high and dry; in the past, they had to flee their homes and wait anxiously for the water to recede.

LINN COUNTY, IA - After watching the town he lives in get inundated with flood waters in the historic Iowa floods of 2008, Tom Watson of Palo, Iowa knows that you can’t stop the water from flowing.

PORT CHARLOTTE, FL – The Community Rating System (CRS) began in 1990 as a voluntary program administered by the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Its purpose is to promote a decrease in flood risks and an increase in flood insurance participation.

FLORIDA - In 1998, Florida suffered one of the worst series of wildfire events on record. Heavy plant growth in previous seasons, followed by hard winter freezes, led to an abundance of dead vegetation. Months of serious drought conditions caused the dead vegetative matter to dry up.

PIERCE COUNTY, WI - Wisconsin wetlands are in danger -- only half of the 10 million acres the state once had still exist. Wetlands play a vital role in the environment, storing water to prevent flooding, protecting water quality and providing wildlife habitat.

WELLINGTON, CO – The completion of the Coal Creek flood mitigation project with the support of a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) pre-disaster mitigation grant has taken much of the town of Wellington out of the Larimer County 100-year floodplain.


GENEVA COUNTY, AL - Heavy rains in the spring of 2009 brought flooding for the first time to the home of Carolyn and Danny Holloway in the City of Geneva; however, they were prepared because they had flood insurance.

MULTIPLE COUNTIES, VA - The southeastern areas of the Commonwealth of Virginia suffered extensive flooding of up to 18 inches of rain from severe storms associated with Tropical Depression Ida and a Nor’easter. The damaging effects of the storm began on November 11, 2009.

SCITUATE, MA - Since 1972, Scituate-resident Bill Montanari has refused to take a winter vacation for fear of flooding at his home on Jericho Road in Massachusetts. Every time a storm caused the water to rise, he spent the night on the couch anxiously watching the weather reports.

FAIRBANKS, AK — Public officials in the Fairbanks North Star Borough have a lot of experience with disaster planning, preparation, response and recovery. Extreme cold weather and frequent flooding are all-too-familiar challenges.

GEORGIA – When Georgia became the first of several FEMA Region IV states poised to lose key National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) staff within a few months, the Floodplain Management and Insurance Branch (FMI) rallied with a pilot orientation workshop to facilitate the transition.

FLORIDA – The Florida HAZUS User Group (FLHUG) was formally organized in January 2006 when the group met to elect officers, create committees, form regions, and adopt a charter. Rick Burgess, City of Punta Gorda, was elected President.

COGSWELL, ND - Like many North Dakota communities, Cogswell, founded by pioneers in 1885 and located on the prairie near the southeastern corner of the state, has been plagued repeatedly by overland flooding and lack of drainage.

REYNOLDS COUNTY, MO - Simple design improvements to a one-lane bridge in rural Reynolds County, Missouri have left the span standing while others around it have been damaged or destroyed by repeated flooding.

GALVESTON, TX – When Hurricane Ike slammed into the city of Galveston as a Category 2 storm on September 13, 2008, it pushed a 12-foot storm surge ahead of it, damaging or destroying as many as 70 percent to 80 percent of the residential structures in the city.

PORT NECHES, TX – As Hurricane Ike ravaged the coast near the Louisiana-Texas border with wind gusts of more than 110 mph, Emergency Management Coordinator Stephen Curran and Police Chief Paul Lemoine hunkered down in the Port Neches fire house.

LIVERMORE, ME - Livermore, Maine is a rural community of rolling countryside along the Androscoggin River. The town is also in the snow belt of south central Maine. Snowfalls of 24 inches are not uncommon, and winter snowfall totals can be upwards of over 100 inches.

HANCOCK COUNTY, ME - The coast of Maine is subjected to vicious winter storms that produce a witch's brew of rain, snow, and ice along with high winds. Along the coast of Maine, there are many small villages that date back to the 1600s.

AUSTIN, TX – While much of Texas was overwhelmed by torrential rains over the Memorial Day weekend of 2015, residents of an Austin subdivision were spared thanks to a flood mitigation project completed in 2004.

EXCELSIOR SPRINGS, MO - The charming, late Victorian-era Town is renowned for its remarkable varieties of mineral waters. The Town is located in the northeast portion of Missouri along the Fishing River, about 30 miles northeast of Kansas City.

BOSTON, MA - The Fenway Community Development Corporation owns and manages a building on Peterborough Street. This building is an affordable residence for the sick, elderly, and disabled. In 1996 the building was flooded twice.

KENOSHA COUNTY, WI - In the span of 10 years, five emergency declarations have been issued for the Fox River Floodplain in Kenosha County.

Caguas, PR - In the aftermath of Tropical Storm Jeanne (2004), four houses located in the Villas del Rey subdivision of the City of Caguas were designated by the local government as uninhabitable. The backyards of these homes were in the floodway boundary of the Turabo River.

SEABROOK, TX – Nestled on the edge of Clear Lake is a waterfront apartment complex that Linda Hart had referred to as home for more than three years.

GALVESTON, TX – Homes in Galveston were devastated with the arrival of Hurricane Ike, a storm that brought a 12-foot surge to the island on September 13, 2008.

NEW JERSEY - On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy swept across the New Jersey coast causing catastrophic surges and extreme damage to homes and businesses. Residents were preparing for the worst and the citizens of the Borough of Roselle feared severe flooding.

KANSAS CITY, MO – In 1864, Brush Creek flowed through the middle of the Battle of Westport, (the biggest battle of the American Civil War west of the Mississippi River). The site is present-day Kansas City.

BRADLEY COUNTY, TN – Without funding from the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA’s) Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP), a city in southeast Tennessee might not have broken a cycle of flooding that threatened to drive away its top employer.

POLK COUNTY, IA – Charlene Ostreko has seen floodwaters pour into her home more than once in the 35 years she and her husband have lived there. Flooding has occurred after major storm events have forced the nearby Four Mile Creek over its banks.

NORTH FORT MEYERS, FL — Recreational boats moored at traditional docks have a bumpy experience during normal weather conditions, not to mention when a hurricane hits. By design, a traditional wooden or metal dock is stationary while the boat moves back and forth with the water.

PORT CHARLOTTE, FL - On August 13, 2004, Hurricane Charley intensified, veered from its predicted course, and smashed into Charlotte County at the mouth of the Peace River.

MIDDLETOWN, CA – Late Saturday afternoon, September 12, 2015, Ron Steffovitch heard the fire department in the neighborhood making the mandatory call for evacuation. Ron grabbed his cat and left his Middletown, California home.

DELAWARE - Severe snow and ice storms in Delaware often cause numerous downed trees. The dried trees create extreme forest fuel loading which contributes to major fires in Delaware pine forests on an annual basis.

BROOKSVILLE, FL - Samantha Vitalone and her family live on a 68-acre tract of land in the City of Brooksville, Florida. Her father, Alphonse Alesso, had purchased the property in 2003 with the intent of developing it as a home and thoroughbred horse raising facility.

EVANSVILLE, IL - The village is a small community in southwestern Illinois along the Kaskaskia River, about 10 miles from its confluence with the Mississippi River.

ALLEGANY COUNTY, MD - Allegany County lies in the western panhandle of Maryland and has a high proportion of development along the floodplain because most of the land lies on steep slopes.

POULSBO, WA - In late 1998, Doris Chapot purchased a two-story Cape Cod-style home built in 1902. For years it served as the First Lutheran Church parsonage. In 1940, the parsonage was moved to its present location.

LUZERNE COUNTY, PA – A wastewater pumping station belonging to the Wyoming Valley Sanitary Authority (WVSA) is often at the mercy of the Susquehanna River. The station, built in 1966, is situated in the historical section of West Pittston, adjacent to the riverbank.

JEFFERSON PARISH, LA – Hurricane Katrina displaced many Gulf Coast residents including Wayne and Rosalie Oubre of Harvey, Louisiana.


KAUAI, HI - On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki hit the island of Kauai, Hawaii, with wind speeds exceeding those of Hurricane Iwa (1982) and Dot (1959). Iniki (a category 4 hurricane) was the strongest and most destructive hurricane to hit the Hawaiian Islands in recorded history.

HARRIS COUNTY, TX - The Harris County Flood Control District (HCFCD), a Cooperating Technical Partner (CTP) in association with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), recently completed a countywide Flood Insurance Study (FIS) restudy for Harris County, Texas (Houston, T

TYLER, TX - Smith County is located in east Texas, approximately 100 miles east of Dallas. It is largely rural, with only one metropolitan area, the City of Tyler.

BAY ST. LOUIS, MS – When it was time to build a new fire station, Hancock County, Mississippi used lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina to dictate a number of factors for the structure.


DE LANCEY, NY - A perennial problem in a rural hamlet in Delaware County worsened dangerously in 1996 when severe storms and flooding overwhelmed a creek and diverted its flow into the hamlet of De Lancey, damaging nearly every home in the community.

HALLANDALE BEACH, FL – For years, residents in the southeast quadrant of Hallandale Beach had been plagued with drainage issues that caused flooding.

PONCA CITY, OK - The National Weather Service reports an average of four hail storms each year in Ponca City, Oklahoma with at least one producing stones 1 inch or larger. Before the 1990s, homeowners anticipated roof replacements well before their 25-year warranties expired.

PENSACOLA, FL - Approximately 400 modest homes located in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties are models for hurricane-resistant construction. These affordable, energy efficient houses built by Pensacola Habitat for Humanity (PHFH) withstood two hurricanes in less than a year.

JEFFERSON PARISH, LA – Hurricane Katrina displaced many Gulf Coast residents including Wayne and Rosalie Oubre of Harvey, Louisiana.

LUZERNE COUNTY, PA – Margie Thomas has lived and worked in the Wyoming Valley area all her life. There, she has witnessed many disasters and the hardships they bring to the affected communities.

ANSONIA PLACE, PA - Prior to 1998, Ansonia Place was a quiet creek-side community Region Iclose to downtown Pittsburgh. It was home to 22 single-family structures and an apartment building.

BELLE GLADE, FL — Florida recorded four of the top five costliest American hurricanes of the century after Hurricanes Andrew, Charley, Ivan and Wilma struck the peninsula.

BISBEE, AZ - With the discovery of this ore-rich area of southeastern Arizona in 1877, hundreds of people joined the quest for wealth and moved to rugged Bisbee. Incorporated on January 9, 1902, Bisbee was the largest city in the territory with over 25,000 residents by 1910.

ALBANY, NY - Repairs to town highways damaged when Tropical Depression Ivan pounded Sullivan County during September 2004, have been designed to make the roads better able to absorb severe weather in the future.

LEWIS COUNTY, WA - Over the past three decades, Washington State has experienced numerous record floods resulting in widespread destruction of property and tragic loss of life.

GAYS MILLS, WI - In June 2008, when the Kickapoo River in Wisconsin overflowed after a deluge, homes around town were submerged in six feet or more of brownish water. But not Mason Evans’ and his wife’s, Diane, home.

MYRTLE BEACH, SC – The Myrtle Beach boardwalk is a sight to see. A meandering 1.2 miles of solid oak walkway guides visitors along a scenic path that’s reminiscent of a 1940s classic film.

CHICKAMAUGA, GA – In mid-September 2004, Hurricane Ivan brought some of the heaviest rainfall ever recorded to the City of Chickamauga, a small town in northwest Georgia close to Chattanooga, Tennessee. This caused the West Chickamauga Creek to rise, as heavy rains have done for years.

LINCOLN COUNTY, WV - Whenever a heavy rain sets in over the small community of Griffithsville, in southwestern West Virginia, flooding can be expected in low-lying areas near Straight Fork and Mud River creeks on Route 3.

PLYMOUTH COUNTY, MA – Plymouth County, MA - The Town of Hull, Massachusetts sits on a 3-square-mile strip of land on the Nantasket Peninsula, extending into Massachusetts Bay.

LEWIS COUNTY, WA - When a community is subjected to flooding, quickly marking floodwater heights becomes critically important. Capturing highly perishable flood elevation information has significant benefit for flood hazard mapping and long-term community planning.

ALABAMA – With more than 200 deaths and thousands left homeless, the tornado outbreaks of late April 2011 left permanent scars on the hearts of all Alabamians.

PULASKI COUNTY, AR—“When disaster strikes, would your child know what to do?” Children are among the most vulnerable disaster victims, so giving them safety guidelines before a disaster strikes is critical.

OKLAHOMA CITY, OK – When Karen and her husband built their retirement home in 2002, they were determined to build a protective safe room equipped with the necessary amenities and materials in the event of a devastating tornado.

HAWAII - To help Hawaii’s disaster managers better prepare for and respond to potentially devastating earthquakes, the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC)—in

FEMA REGION I - Since 2000, Indian tribes, along with State and local governments, have been writing pre-disaster mitigation (PDM) plans in order to achieve compliance with the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 (DMA2000).

FLORIDA – HAZUS-MH is used by many states. Only Florida, however, is the leader in the use of HAZUS-MH.

During the 2005 hurricane season, the following HAZUS-MH outputs were used in State Emergency Response Team (SERT) briefings following each National Hurricane Center advisory:

GLOUCESTER, VA - Gloucester County and its residents are beginning to see the benefits of Hazard Mitigation. Because of its proximity to the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, Gloucester County, particularly its Guinea community, is subjected to periodic flooding from coastal storms.

INDIANA COUNTY, PA - Only two roads leading into Indiana County. One of them frequently experiences washouts from flooding. Unfortunately, this roadway is a primary access route for residents and emergency personnel.


GLASGOW, VA - The Town of Glasgow is located at the confluence of Virginia's Maury and James Rivers and at the base of steep mountain slopes. Flash flooding and river flooding occurs when hurricanes and storm systems stall against the mountains.

BERKELEY, CA -- Giannini Hall received a "poor" seismic rating in the 1997 review of campus buildings and a project to correct structural deficiencies was scheduled to begin July 2005. The schematic design is scheduled to take up to two years, with construction scheduled to begin in 2007.

HATTIESBURG, MS - Prior to 1998, students at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) were largely dependent upon “word of mouth” information when tornadoes threatened the campus.

PLYMOUTH COUNTY, MA – Located along on the Massachusetts Bay, the small seacoast town of Scituate, Massachusetts has seen its share of storms and floods.

VININGS, GA - When Joyce Prince told her neighbors plans for her new house were “up in the air,” she wasn’t kidding. As a matter of fact, raising the level of her house was the only way Cobb County would allow her to build it so close to the Chattahoochee River.

ALLEGANY COUNTY, MD - Allegany County lies within the Potomac River Basin; historically it has experienced devastation of property and loss of life due to swift flowing high water.

GENEVA, AL - Geneva has a long history of flooding. In 1861, the town was destroyed by a flood and relocated to higher ground. Since the turn of the century, Geneva has been flooded four times. Three of those events occurred during the 1990s.

GARDEN CITY, ID – Garden City residents already enjoy reduced flood insurance premiums as a result of their city’s active participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Community Rating System (CRS). And they’re about to pay even less.


GALLATIN COUNTY, MT - Gallatin County, Montana recently completed a comprehensive, two-year study of the potential impacts of two scenario earthquakes: a maximum probable event and a maximum credible event.

GAINESVILLE, TX - The City of Gainesville is located near the confluence of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River and Pecan Creek in Cooke County, Texas. The City has experienced repetitive flooding along both of these streams.

GRAFTON, IL - The City of Grafton, a small tourist-based community in west central Illinois, is located at the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers and just north of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers' confluence. The location of the City makes it extremely flood-prone.

GRAND BLANC, MI - When the severe storms, tornadoes, and flooding struck the lower part of the State of Michigan in late May 2004, few had any idea that it would affect tens of thousands of Michigan families and cost more than $51 million in grants and low-interest loans for disaster assistance.

WASHINGTON, DC - One of the most successful risk assessment tools is HAZUS, or Hazards U.S., a cutting edge software program developed by FEMA with the National Institute of Building Sciences.

FLORIDA – The state of Florida is a leader in the use of HAZUS-MH. Interest in HAZUS-MH took off after the 2004 hurricane season, with the model was used by FEMA and the Florida Division of Emergency Management (DEM) for hurricanes Charley, Jeanne, Frances and Ivan.

FLORIDA - The state of Florida has an opportunity to “break new ground” in data management using HAZUS-MH.

PASCAGOULA, MS – Susan Lee is fortunate to be the owner of the only home in her coastal neighborhood that remained intact and standing after Hurricane Katrina’s devastation on August 29, 2005.

BALDWIN COUNTY, AL - Gulf Shores is a coastal area that has experienced flood inundation, erosion, and hurricane hazards. Hurricanes pose a great risk to development along the coast and endanger lives and property with high winds, wave action, and flooding.

GULF SHORES, AL - Alabama's Gulf Shores is a coastal city bordering the Gulf of Mexico. This region is susceptible to the effects of hurricane destruction and periodic flooding.

GLOUCESTER COUNTY, VA – Guinea is a tight-knit community in southeastern Gloucester County.

Guam - The U.S. Territory of Guam is the largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago. Many typhoons form in the western Pacific Ocean, and in the past 50 years more than 25 typhoons have struck the island.


GENEVA COUNTY, AL – The City of Geneva is located at the intersection of the Choctawhatchee River and the Pea River with the Double Bridges Creek running inside the fork. During major flooding events, damage from sewer backup can be very common and devastating for homeowners.

EVANGELINE PARISH, LA – When the rains fell, the problems would started for drivers on Rixby Manual Road, a connecting street between two highways north of Ville Platte, the seat of this south-central Louisiana parish.


JEFFERSON PARISH, LA – Grand Isle’s location on the Gulf of Mexico means it has sunshine, lots of tourists and good fishing in abundance — along with devastating storms.

GRAND FORKS, ND - The City of Grand Forks experienced a devastating flood in 1997. Structures, personal property, and infrastructure, including the Grand Forks Water Treatment Plant (GFWTP), sustained extensive damage.

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - The Chinese philosopher Chang Heng invented the first seismoscope in A.D. 132. The instrument was a large urn, on the outside of which were eight dragonheads facing the eight principal directions of the compass.

Last updated October 21, 2020