Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis

Main Content
Cover photo for the document: Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis
Vertical evacuation is a programmatic issue central to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, driven by the fact that there are coastal communities along the West Coast of the United States that are vulnerable to tsunamis that could be generated within minutes of an earthquake on the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Vertical evacuation structures provide a means to create areas of refuge for communities in which evacuation out of the inundation zone is not feasible. This guidance document includes the following information to assist in the planning and design of tsunami vertical evacuation structures: general information on the tsunami hazard and its history; guidance on determining the tsunami hazard, including tsunami depth and velocity; different options for tsunami vertical evacuation structures; guidance on siting, spacing, sizing, and elevation considerations; determining tsunami and earthquake loads and related structural design criteria; and structural design concepts and other considerations.
SizePublication Date
Icon for file of type application/pdfGuidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis. Second Edition (FEMA P-646)

Technical updates contained in this Second Edition of the FEMA P-646 report are related to: (1) inclusion of observations and lessons learned from the March 11, 2011 Tohoku tsunami; (2) revision of the debris impact expression to remove over-conservatism deemed to be present in the prior edition; (3) additional explanation of the definition of tsunami elevation as it relates to runup elevation used in tsunami force equations; and (4) update of reference documents to the most current version.

16.95MApril 1, 2012
Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis
June 1, 2008
Icon for file of type application/pdfGuidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis
7.14MJune 1, 2008
Icon for file of type text/plainGuidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis
295.84KJune 1, 2008
Back to Top