Mitigation Assessment Team Program

For more than 30 years, the Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT) Program has been drawing on the combined resources of a federal, state, local, and private sector partnership. The MAT Program allows FEMA to assemble and quickly deploy teams of investigators. These investigators evaluate the performance of buildings and related infrastructure in response to the effects of natural and man-made hazards. The teams conduct field investigations at disaster sites; work closely with local and state officials to develop recommendations for improvements in building design and construction; and develop recommendations concerning code development and enforcement, and mitigation activities that will lead to greater resistance to hazard events.

Timeline from 1993 to 2019 noting the year publications were released.

FEMA publishes the observations and recommendations of a Mitigation Assessment Team in reports. The award-winning MAT Program, operated by a consulting engineering firm under contract to FEMA, has been covered by the national media and featured in numerous technical and professional journals.


The resources below have been developed by the Building Science Branch of FEMA's Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration. They cover natural and man-made hazards.

2021 Kentucky Tornadoes Recovery Advisory 2: Reconstructing a Non-Residential Building After a Tornado

The December 2021 tornadoes that struck Kentucky and surrounding states highlighted the importance of assessing and mitigating the wind vulnerability of existing buildings and improving the resistance to tornado hazards for new buildings. The purpose of this Recovery Advisory (RA) is to emphasize the importance of building codes and introduce best practices intended to minimize tornado damage as part of the rebuilding effort for non-residential buildings that are not essential facilities

2021 Kentucky Tornadoes Recovery Advisory 1: Essential Facilities Located in Tornado-Prone Regions: Recommendations for Facility Owners

The December 2021 tornadoes that struck Kentucky and surrounding states highlighted the importance of assessing and mitigating the extreme-wind vulnerability of existing essential facilities and improving the tornado damage resistance of new essential facilities. The purpose of this advisory is to inform essential facility owners, operators, and planners of ways to improve the tornado performance of their existing or new essential facilities and how to reduce loss of functionality of the facility during and after a tornado.

Improving Windstorm and Tornado Resilience: Recommendations for One- and Two-Family Residential Structures

The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide a brief overview of building envelope and load path improvements to reduce damage to wood-framed, one- and two-family residential structures when impacted by tornadoes rated on the Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale as EF2 or less intensity, and indirectly by tornadoes with a greater EF rating.

Design Guide for New Tornado Load Requirements in ASCE 7-22

This instructional guidance is for design professionals and building officials to help them determine when a building or other structure is required to be designed to minimum tornado loads and how to calculate design tornado forces. This guide is in accordance with the updated requirements of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE 7-22, Minimum Design Loads and Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other Structures.

CNMI MAT: Permitting and Inspection Process for Disaster-Resilient Residential Homes

This fact sheet informs homeowners or their designated representatives—such as a contractor—about the permitting and inspection process, which helps protect the homes, lands, and natural resources of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). By completing these steps and responsibilities as described, your home will be more resilient to natural disasters.

CNMI MAT 1: Maintenance and Retrofit Options for Roof Coverings, Opening Protection Systems, and Exterior Building Elements

The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide cost-effective ways to reduce disaster damages and increase the life expectancy of residential buildings in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). This fact sheet describes many affordable solutions, including lower-cost maintenance recommendations and higher-cost retrofits.

CNMI MAT 2: Maintenance and Retrofit Options for Key Building Systems

The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide options to reduce disaster damage, minimize repair costs, and reduce service losses for key building systems in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). This fact sheet describes lower-cost maintenance recommendations and higher-cost wind retrofits to improve building performance in future disasters.

CNMI RA-1: Code-Based Wind-Resistant Roofing for Homes: Reducing Wind Damage in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

This Recovery Advisory focuses on residential roof construction and materials, and roof-to-wall connections. It also details a seven-step process for enhancing your safety by improving the performance of your home during high winds.

CNMI RA-2: Mitigating Wind Damage to Existing Critical Facilities

This Recovery Advisory provides information to reduce critical facility vulnerability to damage from high wind, including suggestions for assessing the vulnerability of a critical facility to future hazards. The information in this advisory is most useful for retrofits of existing buildings, but also references design guidance appropriate for new construction.

Mitigation Assessment Teams: Building Stronger and Safer

Overview of the Mitigation Assessment Team Program.

FEMA P-2054, Mitigation Assessment Team Compendium Report

The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was extremely active, producing 17 named storms. Six of these storms became major hurricanes (Category 3, 4, or 5), and three ranked in the National Hurricane Center’s (NHC’s) top five hurricanes with the greatest cumulative damage.

FEMA P-2023, Mitigation Assessment Team Report: Hurricane Irma in Florida

Building Performance Observations, Recommendations, and Technical Guidance

FEMA P-2022, Mitigation Assessment Team Report: Hurricane Harvey in Texas

FEMA P-2021 - Hurricanes Irma and Maria in the U.S. Virgin Islands

FEMA P-2020, Mitigation Assessment Team Report: Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Puerto Rico

FEMA P-942, Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey and New York MAT Report, Recovery Advisories & Fact Sheets

This ZIP file contains the Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT) report and appendices, the recovery advisories, and two fact sheets regarding Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey and New York.

FEMA P-908, Mitigation Assessment Team Report – Spring 2011 Tornadoes: April 25-28 and May 22

his report presents the MATs observations, conclusions, and recommendations in response to those field investigations. The mission of the MATs was to assess the performance of structures affected by the tornadoes, investigate safe room and shelter performance in the affected areas, and describe the lessons learned to help future efforts to more successfully mitigate tornado events. The objective of the report is to provide information to communities, businesses, and individuals so that they can rebuild safer, more robust structures and minimize loss of life, injuries, and property damage in future tornadoes and high-wind events. The MAT report will present the observations, conclusions, and recommendations for residential structures, as well as commercial and other non-residential and critical facilities (e.g., schools, hospitals and health care facilities, first responder facilities, and emergency operations centers and emergency management agencies).

RA 5 - Flood Protection for Backup and Emergency Power Fuel Systems

RA 4 - Flood Protection and Elevation of Building Utilities

RA 2 - Elevating Residential Structures within Special Flood Hazard Areas

Last updated February 21, 2023