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Building Science - Earthquake Publications

It is important that communities at risk of earthquakes and tsunamis take proper safety precautions to reduce the risk of life and property when one of these hazards strike. FEMA Building Science provides publications and guidance so that communities can become stronger and better able to withstand the harsh effects of these seismic events. Incorporating FEMA guidance into the development of new and existing buildings will create more resilient buildings that will keep building occupants safe, as well as result in less damages following one of these events.

Promoting Seismic Safety: Guidance for Advocates (FEMA-P-474)

This booklet offers research-based advice to assist seismic safety advocates in presenting risk reduction information and ideas. The full-version of Promoting Seismic Safety: Guidance for Advocates is a 200-plus page report that consists of two parts. PDF files are available for downloaded from the MCEER website at http://mceer.buffalo.edu/publications/tricenter/04-SP02/default.asp. Part One is this guidance document for advocates. Part Two is a set of background papers developed by the authors as part of the project.

FEMA P-530, Earthquake Safety at Home (March 2020)

Half of all Americans live in areas subject to earthquake risk, and most Americans will travel to seismically active regions in their lifetime. FEMA is fostering awareness of earthquake risks in the United States through the newly developed FEMA P-530, Earthquake Safety at Home. FEMA P-530 is intended to show readers why earthquakes matter where they live, and how they can “Prepare, Protect, Survive, Respond, Recover and Repair” from an earthquake. This publication will help readers become familiar with why and where earthquakes might occur. It discusses wide-ranging steps that readers can take to adequately prepare and protect themselves, their family, and their belongings. These include: developing family response plans, assembling earthquake disaster supplies, securing heavy objects and furniture, retrofitting a home, and more.

Earthquake Safety Activities for Children and Teachers

This updated publication provides elementary school teachers with ready-to-use, hands-on activities that explain what happens during an earthquake, how to prepare for earthquake shaking, and how to stay safe during and after an earthquake. Included are a variety of handouts for students, including maps, songs, “hazard hunt” worksheets, and earthquake safety checklists.

Improvement of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures (FEMA-P-440)

This state-of-the-art resource captures the latest advances in nonlinear static analysis. It evaluates FEMA and Applied Technology Council (ATC) procedures for estimating the response of structures to ground shaking and attempts to address the significantly different results in estimates of maximum displacement that these procedures generate. This report sets the stage for future improvements to FEMA 356 or the ATC report, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings (ATC-40).

NEHRP Recommended Provisions and Commentary for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. 2003 Edition (FEMA-P-450)

The 2003 edition has been superseded by the 2009 edition (FEMA P-750). The 2003 edition can be used as a resource document for design professionals, local building officials, and federal regulatory agencies whose technical design standards or code requirements refer to this edition of the Provisions. The 2003 edition present criteria for the design and construction of new buildings, of additions and alterations to existing buildings, and of non-building structures to enable them to resist the effects of earthquake ground motions. The CD contains related seismic design maps, design map value calculation software, and previous Provisions (1997 and 2000). The 2000 edition (FEMA 368 and 369) and FEMA 451 and 451B are available online.

Primer for Design Professionals (FEMA-P-389)

Primer for Design Professionals:
Communicating with Owners and Managers of New Buildings on Earthquake Risk
PROVIDING PROTECTION TO PEOPLE AND BUILDINGS

Installing Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment (FEMA-P-413)

This guide provides equipment installers with information on how to attach electrical equipment to buildings to minimize earthquake damage. Many examples of attachments are presented, including anchors and seismic restraints. An electrical danger instruction chart and safety requirements and codes are included.

Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (FEMA-P-414)

This is one of three fully illustrated guides that show equipment installers how to attach mechanical equipment (FEMA 412), electrical equipment (FEMA 413), and duct and pipe (FEMA 414) to buildings to minimize earthquake damage. The guides describe various types of equipment and include a chart that identifies the types of recommended equipment, the configuration for restraint, and the type of attachment needed. Step-by-step instructions and precautions for each type of equipment and methods for installing the equipment are included. Examples of anchoring and seismic restraint devices; attachment types and instructions for installing equipment in different configurations; and special cases for housekeeping pads, cable assemblies, supports for control panels, and residential equipment are included. The publication does not cover non-building structural framing required to elevate equipment above the floor.

Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of Hospital Buildings : Providing Protection to People and Buildings (FEMA-P-396)

This manual provides healthcare organizations with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for those buildings.

Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12): Providing Protection to People and Buildings (2003) (FEMA-P-395)

This publication was developed to provide school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings, and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for those buildings.

Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment (FEMA-P-412)

This illustrated guide shows equipment installers how to attach mechanical equipment to a building to minimize earthquake damage. Many examples using anchoring and seismic-restraint devices are included. The guide begins with a list of various types of equipment and includes a chart that identifies the equipment, the recommended configuration for restraint, and the type of attachment needed. The second section provides examples of attachment types with instructions for installing equipment in different configurations. The third section provides examples of anchors. The fourth section presents special cases. Step-by-step instructions and special precautions are given for each type of equipment, the method for installing the equipment, and the attachment type needed. The guide does not cover non-building structural framing required to elevate equipment above the floor.

FEMA 221, Collocation Impacts on the Vulnerability of Lifelines during Earthquakes with Applications to the Cajon Pass, California: Study Overview

This report summarizes a study of lifeline systems located along the Cajon Pass in southern California. The study included analyses of communication lifelines, electric power lifelines, fuel pipelines, and transportation lifelines. The report evaluates how collocation may influence each lifeline’s seismic vulnerability. A brief description of the screening tool developed during the study is provided.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA 225, Inventory of Lifelines in the Cajon Pass, California

This report provides an inventory of the major lifeline systems in the Cajon Pass. The report describes the earthquake and geologic analysis tools available to identify and define the level of seismic risk to those lifelines. The vulnerabilities occurring from the siting of multiple lifeline systems in confined and at risk areas due to their interactions from natural and manmade disasters are evaluated. Potential mitigation techniques for communication lifelines, electrical power lifelines, fuel pipelines, and transportation lifelines are identified. Detailed maps indicate lifeline locations. The report also discusses seismic hazards and predictive models for evaluating the damage potentials associated with the various seismic hazards.

There are two files in the compressed file, the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

Collocation Impacts on the Vulnerability of Lifelines during Earthquakes with Applications to the Cajon Pass, California (FEMA 226 1992)

This report presents a new analysis method to identify the increase in the seismic vulnerability of individual lifeline systems (communication systems, electric power systems, fuel pipelines, and transportation lifeline) due to their proximity to other lifelines in the Cajon Pass. The method calculates a parameter that can be used to adjust the damage state values for shaking as determined by the ATC 13 damage probability matrices. The primary objective of the study was to determine how the time to restore full service would be affected by the collocation of several types of lifelines in the same congested corridor. The new method is applied to the Cajon Pass lifelines. The design program, AutoCAD, is used to develop overlays of the lifeline routes with seismic and geologic information presented in the inventory report (FEMA 225).

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA P-1100 Volume 1: Vulnerability-Based Seismic Assessment and Retrofit of One- and Two-Family Dwellings

Improved seismic design and seismic retrofitting of vulnerable configurations will increase the probability that homes are available to provide shelter immediately following moderate to large seismic events. The purpose of this prestandard is provide a methodology to identify and retrofit specific known vulnerabilities in wood light-frame dwellings. Development of the assessment and retrofit provisions has included use of the best available seismic numerical modeling tools and engineering practices to assist in development of assessment methods and to identify retrofit criteria to best achieve targeted performance objectives. Use of the provisions is anticipated to improve earthquake performance but is not intended to prevent earthquake damage.

This pre-standard provides a stand-alone resource for assessment and retrofit, incorporating all provisions required for implementation, and includes figures containing prescriptive, pre-engineered structural drawings and commentary, as well as appendices that are expected to remain non-mandatory.

FEMA P-1100 Volume 2A- Plan Set for Crawlspace Dwellings

Improved seismic design and seismic retrofitting of vulnerable configurations will increase the probability that homes are available to provide shelter immediately following moderate to large seismic events. The purpose of this prestandard is provide a methodology to identify and retrofit specific known vulnerabilities in wood light-frame dwellings. Development of the assessment and retrofit provisions has included use of the best available seismic numerical modeling tools and engineering practices to assist in development of assessment methods and to identify retrofit criteria to best achieve targeted performance objectives. Use of the provisions is anticipated to improve earthquake performance but is not intended to prevent earthquake damage.

FEMA P-1100 Volume 2B: Plan Set for Living Space Over Garage Dwellings

Improved seismic design and seismic retrofitting of vulnerable configurations will increase the probability that homes are available to provide shelter immediately following moderate to large seismic events. The purpose of this prestandard is provide a methodology to identify and retrofit specific known vulnerabilities in wood light-frame dwellings. Development of the assessment and retrofit provisions has included use of the best available seismic numerical modeling tools and engineering practices to assist in development of assessment methods and to identify retrofit criteria to best achieve targeted performance objectives. Use of the provisions is anticipated to improve earthquake performance but is not intended to prevent earthquake damage.

FEMA P-1100 Volume 2C: Plan set for Masonry Chimneys

Improved seismic design and seismic retrofitting of vulnerable configurations will increase the probability that homes are available to provide shelter immediately following moderate to large seismic events. The purpose of this prestandard is provide a methodology to identify and retrofit specific known vulnerabilities in wood light-frame dwellings. Development of the assessment and retrofit provisions has included use of the best available seismic numerical modeling tools and engineering practices to assist in development of assessment methods and to identify retrofit criteria to best achieve targeted performance objectives. Use of the provisions is anticipated to improve earthquake performance but is not intended to prevent earthquake damage.

FEMA 68, Earthquake Insurance: A Public Policy Dilemma

This report examines issues and problems associated with the availability and procurement of earthquake insurance from the point of view of consumers and providers. The report outlines the provisions of earthquake insurance policies currently available to homeowners, businesses, local governments, and special districts. It examines the extent to which earthquake insurance is purchased and why it may be unattractive to consumers. The federal role in providing or promoting earthquake insurance is reviewed. Policies are recommended for the Federal Government and others to develop a more adequate system of coverage.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA 84, Societal Implications: Selected Readings

These selected readings provide participants in the building process at the local, State, and regional levels with information on the most significant societal implications of adopting new or improved seismic regulations for new buildings. Included are papers on the estimated impact of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions on design and construction costs, seismic hazards in various areas of the U.S., seismic safety codes, current seismic hazard mitigation practices and programs, and recent seismic safety policy research. The book also contains an extensive bibliography, a list of information sources, and a glossary of terms.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

Last updated February 22, 2021