FEMA Case Study Library

Browse case study reports and best practice articles from across FEMA's areas of expertise. You can search by title or keywords, select additional content filters, or jump to a collection.


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Rising Interest Expenses

On Sept. 30, 2022, the NFIP made a semi-annual interest payment of $300 million to the U.S. Treasury. With this payment, the NFIP has now paid over $5.7 billion in interest since Hurricane Katrina hit the United States in 2005.

NFIP Modifies Benefit-Cost Ratio for Community Grant Programs

There is a Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) requirement to access funding through FEMA’s Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs. The BCA is the method used to calculate the future risk reduction benefits of a hazard mitigation project and compares those benefits to its costs.

Partner Developed Guidance for Mapping Debris Flow and Mudflow Hazards

roads, impact critical infrastructure like water and sewer lines and can be deadly. It is difficult to identify where debris flows and mudflows are likely to happen using existing mapping methods. Professionals need a more effective way to map debris and mudflow risk areas.

Paradise, California: Rebuilding Resilient Homes after the Camp Fire

The Town of Paradise employed innovative tactics with state and federal support to empower low-to-moderate income residents to rebuild their homes safely and navigate disaster assistance options after the Camp Fire. Establishing a Building Resiliency Center provided a single place to assist property owners with their rebuilding needs and questions. Direct engagement with impacted residents and a focus on customer service helped overcome challenges and provides an example of trauma-informed disaster assistance at the local level.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management Office of Diversity Opportunity Inclusion

Challenge Good governance is defined by several characteristics including accountability; transparency; responsiveness; efficiency; integrity; and inclusiveness. By developing data-driven policies and laws that address the diverse needs of the Commonwealth, we can continue to build resilient communities and inter-connected counties, towns, and cities.  

Maryland – Equity & Climate Adaptation Projects

Challenge How do we build climate-resilient communities while also advancing equity for all, including people of color and others who have been historically underserved and adversely affected by persistent poverty and inequality?

District of Columbia Homeland Security and Emergency Management Agency Subrecipient Monitoring Protocol

The DCHSEMA monitoring process follows a risk-based monitoring strategy which looks at prior monitoring, spending performance, number of subawards, average financial risk, audits, quarterly status review, and overall performance.

Maryland Department of the Environment: Promoting Higher Standards with the Climate Ready Action Boundary Map Viewer

Challenge: The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) is how high floodwater is likely to rise during a 1%-annual-chance flood event. It is one way to measure and indicate flood risk. However, the study that established the BFE is only a snapshot in time. There are many factors that can cause floodwaters to rise above the BFE. These factors include debris-blocked bridge and culvert openings; blocked city storm sewer drains; higher-intensity rain events; storm tracks causing coinciding peak flows of flooding sources; high backwater conditions; and heavy rains on frozen ground with considerable snow depths. There is also always the potential for an event more severe than the 1%-annual-chance event. To communicate and reduce flood risk in areas beyond FEMA’s regulatory flood zones, communities need more information (especially spatial information) about flooding that exceeds the 1%-annual-chance event.


This section outlines the current state of the NFIP’s debt to Treasury and proposes potential reforms to address this accumulation of debt.

Flood Grant Program Helps Reduce High Risk Flood Properties and Increases Resilience

An overview of FEMA’s Flood Mitigation Assistance program that provides a summary of the program’s results for FY 2021. Relevant details of the program for FY 2022 are also provided. This program is key to FEMA’s resilience efforts as catastrophic flooding persists.