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Emerging Hazards of Battery Energy Storage System Fires

Grant Number: EMW-2016-FP-00833
Principle Investigator: Ofodike Ezekoye Ph.D., P.E.
University of Texas at Austin

In April 2019, an unexpected explosion of batteries on fire in an Arizona energy storage facility injured eight firefighters. More than a year before that fire, FEMA awarded a Fire Prevention and Safety (FP&S), Research and Development (R&D) grant to the University of Texas at Austin to address firefighter concerns about safety when responding to fires in battery energy storage systems of all sizes. Professor O.A. (‘DK’) Ezekoye is working with other engineers, firefighters, and industry partners to develop a better understanding of the magnitude of the fire hazards. 

There has been a dramatic increase in the use of battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the United States. These systems are used in residential, commercial, and utility scale applications. Most of these systems consist of multiple lithium-ion battery cells. A single battery cell (7 x 5 x 2 inches) can store 350 Whr of energy. Unfortunately, these lithium cells can experience thermal runaway which causes them to release very hot flammable, toxic gases. In large storage systems, failure of one lithium cell can cascade to include hundreds of individual cells. The hot flammable gases can result in an explosion, or a very difficult to extinguish fire. 

Although the fire service routinely responds to explosive scenarios, such as those associated with natural gas leaks, standard operating procedures do not exist for scenarios like a battery energy storage system for which there is no way to cut off the gas supply. The fire service is unaware and inexperienced with the fire and explosion hazards of BESS. 

The FP&S R&D study started with a laboratory test in which a single cell failed in one commercial storage module containing a total of 14 cells. In one of the early tests, when a single cell failed, smoke and gases were released that ignited and burned intensely for 12 seconds. Toxic smoke and gases filled the test space. 

The research team has subsequently connected small-scale battery failure test results to large scale fire and explosion consequences associated with these systems. Through this research, one of the biggest lessons learned for the fire service is that the utilities and commercial entities that own large battery systems are equally unfamiliar with the potential fire hazards. As well, there remain many questions about the toxicity of the battery vent gas. 

From 2014 to 2018, residential BESS installations have increased by 200% annually. Further research into residential BESS hazards is essential as BESS hazards could eventually become a regular part of dwelling fires. 

According to Professor Ezekoye, the results of this study will lead to wider awareness of the BESS hazards, a greater understanding of the underlying fire behavior of these systems, and eventually the development of safe standard operating guidelines and procedures for firefighters. 

Link: www.UTFireResearch.com 

For more information on Fire Prevention & Safety Grants including how to apply, please visit https://www.fema.gov/fire-prevention-safety-grants. 

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Last updated October 27, 2020