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  • FEMA 224, Seismic Vulnerability and Impact of Disruption of Lifelines in the Conterminous United States

    This report provides a national overview of lifeline seismic vulnerability and the impact of disruption. Both site specific lifelines and extended lifeline networks are examined. Included is a review of electric, water, transportation, and emergency service systems. The vulnerability estimates and impacts are presented in terms of estimated direct damage losses and indirect economic losses. The report also presents hazard mitigation measures and their expected benefits and recommendations for future work.
  • Earthquake Preparedness: What Every Child Care Provider Needs to Know

    This publication features practical and low-cost techniques to make child care facilities safer in the event of an earthquake, whether they are based in a home or a larger facility. The publication offers tips for conducting earthquake drills and includes a checklist of supplies to keep on hand in an emergency kit.
  • Seismic Retrofit Incentive Programs: A Handbook for Local Governments

    This handbook assists local government officials in developing seismic retrofit incentive programs. The handbook summarizes several case studies that describe the steps that seven California cities have taken to promote and implement retrofitting in their communities. Included are sections on using zoning as an incentive to retrofit; local government finance options; a description of the Unreinforced Masonry Buildings (URM) law and of recent legislation; and liability implications and considerations in the event of an earthquake.
  • Seismic Rehabilitation of Federal Buildings: A Benefit/Cost Model. Volume 1: A User’s Manual

    This user’s manual and accompanying software present a second-generation benefit-cost model for the seismic rehabilitation of federal and other government buildings.The benefit-cost methodology provides facility managers, design professionals, and other decision makers with estimates of the benefits of seismic rehabilitation and the estimated costs needed to implement rehabilitation.The methodology also generates detailed scenario estimates of damages, losses, and casualties. A tutorial and benefit-cost analyses of eight federal buildings are included. Alternative benefit-cost software and related technical assistance is available through FEMA’s Pre-Disaster Mitigation Grant Program ( Additional information about benefit-cost analysis related to natural hazard mitigation is available in the report entitled Natural Hazard Mitigation Saves: An Independent Study to Assess the Future Savings from Mitigation Activities (
  • Seismic Rehabilitation of Federal Buildings: A Benefit/Cost Model. Volume 2: Supporting Documentation

    This supporting documentation contains background information for FEMA 255, including information on valuing public sector services, discount rates and multipliers, the dollar value of human life, and technical issues that affect benefit/cost analysis, such as seismic risk assessment and sensitivity analysis.
  • Managing Floodplain Development in Approximate Zone A Areas - A Guide for Obtaining and Developing Base (100 yr) Flood Elevations (1995)

    This manual provides engineering guidelines for determining base flood elevations in Special Flood Hazard Areas studied by approximate methods only.

  • Plan for Developing and Adopting Seismic Design Guidelines and Standards for Lifelines

    This document outlines a plan for developing and adopting design and construction standards for lifelines. The plan 1) establishes performance criteria for the construction, maintenance, and operation of new and existing lifeline systems, equipment, and materials for selected levels of seismic risk; 2) provides a basis for technical specifications for use by buyers and sellers of lifeline products and services to reduce the vulnerability of lifeline systems to earthquakes; and 3) provides a reliable basis for regulations to protect public health, safety, and welfare. Five types of lifeline systems are presented: electric, gas and liquid fuel, telecommunications, transportation, and water systems.
  • Planning for Seismic Rehabilitation: Societal Issues

    This publication provides users with an understanding of the social and public policy issues that may accompany seismic rehabilitation, such as demographic, social, and economic impacts; historic property restrictions; resident dislocations; and business interruptions. The publication presents a four-step decision process to assist local officials, private owners, and design professionals in determining the need for rehabilitation. It includes an “escalation ladder” to assist in understanding the degree of conflict that might be generated and the implications of choosing particular strategies.
  • FEMA 277, The Oklahoma City Bombing Report (1996)

    The purposes of the Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT) investigation were to review damage caused by the blast, determine the failure mechanism for the building, and review engineering strategies for reducing such damage to new and existing buildings in the future. The available pdf file was created from a scanned document. No text files (.txt) exist for this publication.

  • Increased Cost of Compliance (ICC) Coverage: Guidance for State and Local Officials

    Provides information on the Increased Cost of Compliance coverage and how it relates to communities' administration of floodplain management laws or ordinances following a flooding event.

    Additional information on increased cost of compliance can be found below:
    - Increased Cost of Compliance (ICC) Fact Sheet
    - FEMA P-1080, Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Increased Cost of Compliance
    - Increased Cost of Compliance Brochure
    - Increased Cost of Compliance Coverage: How You Can Benefit
    - Increased Cost of Compliance Proof of Loss
    - Increased Cost of Compliance Policyholder's Processing Checklist

  • The Repair of Earthquake Damaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings

    This document provides practical guidance for the repair and upgrade of earthquake-damaged concrete and masonry wall buildings. Target audiences include design engineers, building owners and officials, insurance adjusters, and government agencies. The publication contains sections on performance-based repair design, repair technologies, categories of repair, and nonstructural considerations. The last section includes repair guides, which provide outline specifications for typical repair procedures.
  • FEMA P-320, Taking Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Room for Your Home or Small Business (2014)

    Having a safe room built for your home or small business can help provide near-absolute protection for you and your family or employees from injury or death caused by the dangerous forces of extreme winds such as tornadoes and hurricanes. Taking Shelter from the Storm, Building a Safe Room For Your Home or Small Business, FEMA P-320, now in its fourth edition, helps home or small business owners assess their risk and determine the best type of safe room for their needs. FEMA P-320 includes safe room designs and shows you and your builder/contractor or local design professional how to construct a safe room for your home or small business. Design options include safe rooms located inside or outside of a new home or small business.

  • FEMA 338, Building Performance Assessment Team (BPAT) Report - Hurricane Georges in the Gulf Coast (1999)

    This report presents FEMA's Building Performance Assessment Team's (BPAT) observations on the success and failure of buildings in the Florida Keys and Gulf Coast areas of the United States to withstand the wind and flood forces generated by Hurricane Georges. Recommendations to improve the building performance in future natural disasters in this area are included as well.

    A Power Point presentation of the MAT report can be downloaded, in PDF format, by going to

  • Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel Moment-Frame Buildings

    This resource document (FEMA 350) for organizations engaged in the development of building codes and standards provides recommended guidelines for the design and construction of steel moment frame buildings and alternative performance-based design criteria. It supplements the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and other Structures. A series of pre-qualified connection details, as well as a detailed procedure for performance evaluation, is included.
  • Recommended Specifications and Quality Assurance Guidelines for Steel Moment-Frame Construction for Seismic Applications

    This two-part publication provides recommended specifications for the fabrication and erection of steel moment-frames for seismic applications. Part One covers recommended specifications, including information on products; execution; welded joint and fabrication details; and quality control and assurance. Part Two outlines quality assurance guidelines; contractor qualifications and quality tasks; quality assurance agency qualifications and quality assurance tasks; and recommended methods for determining whether structural steel materials, welded joints, and bolted joints meet the applicable standards. The recommended design criteria contained in FEMA 350, FEMA 351, and FEMA 352 are based on the standards contained in this document.
  • Huracanes en Puerto Rico: Gu?a de Mitigaci?n de Dan?s - Antes, Durante y Despu?s del Hurac?

    This complete Spanish guide to hurricane mitigation for Puerto Rico contains information ranging from basic hurricane preparedness to major mitigation projects such as raising or reinforcing residential structures.
  • Planning for a Sustainable Future: the Link Between Hazard Mitigation and Livability

    “Planning for a Sustainable Future: The Link Between Hazard Mitigation and Livability” (FEMA 364) illustrates how communities, whether planning for hazard mitigation before a disaster or initiating recovery planning after a disaster, can integrate the concepts and principles of sustainable development into each phase of mitigation planning. FEMA 364 also shows how disaster resistance can be a catalyst to help communities incorporate sustainable development practices into their day-to-day planning and development functions. Finally, FEMA 364 gives real-life examples of communities that have successfully implemented sustainable development practices in their community and describes how citizens and local officials can become advocates for disaster resistance as a part of sustainable development and livability in their communities.
  • Natural and Beneficial Functions of Floodplains

    The Task Force on the Natural and Beneficial Functions of Floodplains was established by Congress to help identify the natural functions and benefits of floodplains, and determine how the nation can reduce flood losses through floodplain restoration and protection. In this publication, the Task Force explores the valuable functions of pristine or restored floodplains and their contributions to flood reduction and prevention.
  • FEMA History

    This publication is the first part of a 3 publication set detailing the origins, accomplishments and future plans of FEMA. This publication focuses on the history of FEMA, chronicling the events that led to FEMA's formation.
  • FEMA Disasters 1993-2000

    This publication is the second part of a 3 publication set detailing the origins, accomplishments and future plans of FEMA. This publication focuses on FEMA's disaster recovery efforts from 1993-2000.