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Secondary Programmatic Agreement (2PA) Reports for the Mississppi Recovery Office

Background on Publications

Hurricane Katrina, one of the worst natural disasters in United States history, made landfall near the mouth of the Pearl River at the Louisiana–Mississippi border on August 29, 2005.  The Category 3 hurricane had, at landfall, registered sustained winds of 120 miles per hour and dropped as much as eight to ten inches of rain in southwestern Mississippi. 

Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires all Federal agencies to consider the effects of their actions (projects they carry out, fund or permit) on historic properties and to provide the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) an opportunity to comment on Federal projects prior to implementation.  Historic properties are properties that are included in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) or that meet the criteria to be listed in the National Register.  Historic properties include buildings, historic districts, structures, archaeological sites and objects.  Section 106 encourages but does not mandate preservation.  It requires Federal agencies to assume responsibility for the consequences of their actions on historic properties and be publicly accountable for their decisions.

The adverse effects to below-ground historic properties caused by FEMA undertakings are more difficult to assess than effects on above-ground resources.  While many sites had been identified and entered into the Mississippi Department of Archives and History (MDAH) archaeological site files, many more sites were unknown.  Movement of heavy equipment across sites, extraction of tree roots, and the scraping and removal of debris that occurred during the debris removal and demolition programs are activities that can easily destroy the integrity of below ground resources.   Based upon the expertise of staff working early in the mission and consultation with several stakeholders, FEMA’s Environmental/Historic Preservation (EHP) staff was able to determine that adverse effects did occur as a result of the agency’s actions. However, the staff in place early in the disaster faced very difficult working conditions and the data documenting their efforts was, in many cases, not preserved.

Rather than slow the response and recovery efforts or deny state and local government funding for work that inadvertently damaged historic structures, districts or archaeological sites, FEMA, the Mississippi (MS) SHPO, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians (MBCI) THPO, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) and the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency (MEMA) and other involved parties agreed to a streamlined review process.

The Secondary Programmatic Agreement (2PA)

FEMA agreed to undertake a number of nontraditional tasks to compensate for this streamlined review process. This warranted the creation of the Secondary Programmatic Agreement (2PA).  The implementation of the 2PA was authorized under Stipulation VII.A.2 of the 2004 Statewide Programmatic Agreement (PA) to specifically address the review process for the Undertaking; to define FEMA’s criteria for evaluating damaged and destroyed properties following Hurricane Katrina; to provide treatment measures to address the adverse effects of the Undertaking; and to expedite the Section 106 review in order to assist disaster victims in the hurricane recovery and to minimize delays in FEMA’s delivery of funds. The 2PA sanctioned the federally funded destruction of certain badly damaged historic properties but in return, FEMA agreed to carry out a number of measures to atone for the destruction of the historic properties. FEMA agreed to carry out five measures or stipulations:

Conduct historic property surveys and draft determinations of eligibility for identified properties (Cultural Resource Surveys) which involved:

-Assessing listed historic districts, structures and archaeological sites to see if they were still eligible for the National Register;

-Locating previously unknown or unidentified historic districts, structures and archaeological sites eligible for the National Register;

-Using Global Positioning System (GPS) to capture spatial information;

-Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and a database for data management and spatial reference of the structures and archaeological sites;

-Developing a report for each survey area (county) – County  Standard Survey Reports

-Preparing a report with all findings for the Gulf Coast - Integrated Survey Report

Develop Survey Data Publications for each of the three coastal counties which included:

-Publishing a document for each coastal county for use by the general population that included maps, photographs, and narrative of findings; and

-Distributing them in print, CD, and web

Prepare a Comprehensive Report of FEMA’s compliance efforts with historic preservation laws which:

-Includes all FEMA Programs (PA, IA, HM, Mission Assignments); and

-Identifies key lessons learned

Historical Marker Program

-Funding the manufacturing of 29 historical markers for exceptional historic properties destroyed by Katrina

Develop Hazard Mitigation Plans which involved:

-FEMA and the SHPO integrating historic preservation measures into state and/or local hazard mitigation plans;

-FEMA, in consultation with SHPO, developing a demonstration project that shows techniques of how properties can be mitigated, yet maintain their historic integrity

These tasks included conducting architectural and archaeological surveys to determine the extent of damage to known historic resources; finding previously undesignated or unidentified historic structures and archaeological sites; and developing a database of these properties.  The extensive Katrina related damage and loss of historic properties made the surviving properties much more valuable and increased the need for their preservation.  These surveys and database will:

-Allow more efficient project review for impacts to historic properties during future disaster response activities;

-Assist local, state and federal agencies in the preservation of cultural resources and compliance with historic preservation laws for non-disaster related projects; and

-Support designation of properties to the NRHP, Mississippi Landmark Program and local historic registries.

SizePublication Date
Icon for file of type application/pdfIntegrated Historic Properties Survey Report Mississippi Secondary Programmatic Agreement August 2016

The Integrated Report completes FEMA’s obligations as set forth in the Secondary Programmatic Agreement among the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Advisory Council for Historic Preservation, Mississippi State Historic Preservation Officer, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, and the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency for Debris Removal and Demolition on Privately-Owned Property in Mississippi (2PA). It summarizes all documents and survey information produced by FEMA’s Environmental and Historic Preservation staff to fulfill the Stipulations and Treatment Measures as set forth in the 2PA. In lieu of including the fourteen Standard Survey Reports (seven archaeological and seven architectural), Determinations of Eligibility (DOEs),  Mississippi Historic Resource Information Forms (MRIFs) and GPS/GIS survey information, FEMA submitted this summary of the 2PA required Treatment Measures and the dates of SHPO concurrence.  The SHPO concurred with this abbreviated approach in an e-mail dated February 23, 2016. This report is the final document required by the 2PA.  The concurrence of this report by the SHPO and its transmittal to all Signatory parties satisfactorily fulfilled IX.B.4 of the 2PA and all five Stipulations of the 2PA.

Icon for file of type application/pdfSurvey Data Publication Harrison County, Mississippi June 2016

In order to promote and facilitate public understanding of the historic properties surveys, the 2PA under Stipulation IX.C., required FEMA to develop publications documenting the historic properties for each of the three coastal counties:  Hancock, Harrison and Jackson. The Survey Data Publications (SDP) include data from the below ground archaeological surveys and the aboveground structures and integrated maps and photos.  The SDPs include a background of the field survey and data collection survey strategies employed during FEMA’s survey efforts; the history of development in these counties; examples of the surviving historic properties in each county and their significance; any newly identified archaeological properties which FEMA identified during its debris removal/demolition actions including properties that were exposed by the storm surge and describe the historic properties that were destroyed by the disaster or demolished as part of the Undertaking.  They also include a description of existing historic districts and individually listed historic properties; the revised and proposed revisions to existing National Register-listed historic districts; historic properties identified by FEMA in consultation with the SHPO and determined eligible for the NRHP as historic districts and/or individually eligible historic properties. The SDPs contain photographs of representative historic properties, including streetscapes of residential, commercial and industrial areas and maps showing the boundaries and contributing and non-contributing properties in the existing and newly identified historic districts. The information in the SDPs can also be used as a tool for property owners and/or local governments involved in cultural resource preservation and historic property disaster preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery. 

0.03GJune 1, 2016
Icon for file of type application/pdfA Comprehensive Report on FEMA’s Section 106 Compliance Following Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi

A Comprehensive Report on FEMA’s Section 106 Compliance Following Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi.

The Comprehensive Report was required by Stipulation IX.D of the 2PA. The Comprehensive Report documented FEMA’s compliance efforts to meet the Section 106 compliance requirements for historic properties that may have been affected directly or indirectly by FEMA’s disaster assistance programs including: PA (including debris removal/demolition undertakings and permanent repairs); the Hazard Mitigation Program (HMGP); and IA over a three year period, September 2005 – September 2008, following Hurricane Katrina.  In addition, the report included those mission-assigned activities undertaken by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) that occurred primarily during the first 10 months of operations after Katrina. FEMA’s EHP staff consulted with the SHPO and the Tribes to identify key lessons learned through FEMA’s response to Katrina and identified policy level issues that may have limited FEMA’s ability to identify alternatives that may have avoided adverse effects on historic properties.