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Laws and Regulations

A number of laws have been passed to strengthen the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), ensure its fiscal soundness and inform its mapping and rate-setting through expert consultation, reports and studies.

Governing the National Flood Insurance Program

The National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 & the Flood Insurance Protection Act of 1973

The National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 launched the National Flood Insurance Program.

The Flood Insurance Protection Act of 1973 mandated that lenders require flood insurance on loans secured by properties located within high-risk flood areas
 

The National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994

The National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994 strengthened the NFIP with a number of reforms that included increasing the focus on lender compliance, creating mitigation insurance and developing a mitigation assistance program to further reduce the costly and devastating impacts of flood.
 

The Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2004

The Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2004 further strengthened the NFIP with a number of reforms that included reducing losses to properties for which repetitive flood insurance claim payments have been made, creating policyholder awareness about individual flood insurance policies, increasing policyholder information on guidance about the flood insurance claims process and establishing a minimum flood insurance training and education requirement for insurance professionals.
 

The Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012

The Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012 (Biggert Waters) authorized and funded the national mapping program and certain rate increases to ensure the fiscal soundness of the program by transitioning the program from subsidized rates, also known as artificially low rates, to offer full actuarial rates reflective of risk.

The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014

The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014 prohibited the implementation of certain sections of the previous law – Biggert-Waters, effectively stopping certain rate increases while new law was being developed to address raise rate concerns.

Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2014

The Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2014 (HFIAA) repealed certain parts of previous law – Biggert-Waters, restoring grandfathering, putting limits on certain rate increases and updating the approach to ensuring the fiscal soundness of the fund by applying an annual surcharge to all policyholders.

Additional Laws and Regulations

For reference, below is a listing of the various other laws and regulations that govern the National Flood Insurance Program.