U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.

Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.

The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Building Science - Earthquake Publications

It is important that communities at risk of earthquakes and tsunamis take proper safety precautions to reduce the risk of life and property when one of these hazards strike. FEMA Building Science provides publications and guidance so that communities can become stronger and better able to withstand the harsh effects of these seismic events. Incorporating FEMA guidance into the development of new and existing buildings will create more resilient buildings that will keep building occupants safe, as well as result in less damages following one of these events.

Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings (2 of 3)

The principal product under this combined 10-year work effort was the development of a methodology for seismic performance assessment of individual buildings that properly accounts for uncertainty in our ability to accurately predict response, and communicates performance in ways that better relate to the decision-making needs of stakeholders. This project completed the development of a methodology for seismic performance assessment of individual buildings in December 2018. The final products together describe the resulting methodology, as well as the development of basic building information, response quantities, fragilities, and consequence data used as inputs to the methodology. To allow practical implementation of the methodology, work included the collection of fragility and consequence data for most common structural systems and building occupancies, and the development of an electronic Performance Assessment Calculation Tool (PACT) for performing the probabilistic computations and accumulation of losses.

Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings (1 of 3)

The principal product under this combined 10-year work effort was the development of a methodology for seismic performance assessment of individual buildings that properly accounts for uncertainty in our ability to accurately predict response, and communicates performance in ways that better relate to the decision-making needs of stakeholders. This project completed the development of a methodology for seismic performance assessment of individual buildings in December 2018. The final products together describe the resulting methodology, as well as the development of basic building information, response quantities, fragilities, and consequence data used as inputs to the methodology. To allow practical implementation of the methodology, work included the collection of fragility and consequence data for most common structural systems and building occupancies, and the development of an electronic Performance Assessment Calculation Tool (PACT) for performing the probabilistic computations and accumulation of losses.

Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings (3 of 3)

The principal product under this combined 10-year work effort was the development of a methodology for seismic performance assessment of individual buildings that properly accounts for uncertainty in our ability to accurately predict response, and communicates performance in ways that better relate to the decision-making needs of stakeholders. This project completed the development of a methodology for seismic performance assessment of individual buildings in December 2018. The final products together describe the resulting methodology, as well as the development of basic building information, response quantities, fragilities, and consequence data used as inputs to the methodology. To allow practical implementation of the methodology, work included the collection of fragility and consequence data for most common structural systems and building occupancies, and the development of an electronic Performance Assessment Calculation Tool (PACT) for performing the probabilistic computations and accumulation of losses.

National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) Resource Guide for Earthquake Program Managers

FEMA developed the National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) as a mechanism for delivering direct assistance to the public to increase their knowledge and ability to analyze their risk, make a plan, and take actions aimed at reducing their earthquake risk and supporting overall community resilience. NETAP is a program managed by FEMA to rapidly deploy training and technical assistance to organizations and communities. The NETAP Resource Guide for Earthquake Program Managers provides information on how regions, states, and territories can request NETAP assistance.

NETAP Training Flyers

The National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP), http://www.fema.gov/national-earthquake-technical-assistance-program, is designed to help state, local, and tribal governments obtain the knowledge, tools, and support that they need to plan and implement effective earthquake mitigation strategies. NETAP customers can customize these flyer templates to announce, recruit, and market available NETAP courses. For more information, visit NETAP Training Courses and Associated Materials, http://www.fema.gov/national-earthquake-technical-assistance-program.

National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) Training Request/Approval Form

The requestor is responsible for local logistical arrangements and associated costs (if any) including the room reservation, audio/visual equipment reservation (projector and screen), recruitment and registration of students, and refreshments (optional). By submitting this NETAP training request form, the requestor is confirming responsibility for local logistical arrangements.

Earthquake Safety Checklist

This quick reference guide helps individuals and families prepare for an earthquake and prevent earthquake-related damage to their homes. The easy-to-read booklet features instructions on conducting earthquake drills and “hazard hunts.” Also included are a checklist of disaster supplies, tips on what to do during and after an earthquake, and additional resources.

FEMA L-783, Building Science for Disaster-Resistant Communities: Seismic Hazard Publications (2011)

This brochure provides readers with a quick summary of publications that will help them prepare for and mitigate against seismic hazards. The Building Science Branch develops and produces technical guidance and tools focused on fostering a disaster-resistant built environment. Located within FEMA’s Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration’s (FIMA’s) Risk Reduction Division, the Building Science Branch supports the directorate’s mission to reduce risk to life and property by providing state-of-the-art technical hazard mitigation solutions for buildings.

What To Do Before, During, and After an Earthquake Fact Sheet

Recent earthquakes remind us that we live on a restless planet. But there are many important things we can do before, during, and after an earthquake to protect ourselves, our homes, and our families.

FEMA P-1000, Safer, Stronger, Smarter: A Guide to Improving School Natural Hazard Safety (June 2017)

This Guide provides up-to-date, authoritative information and guidance that schools can use to develop a comprehensive strategy for addressing natural hazards. It is intended to be used by administrators, facilities managers, emergency managers, emergency planning committees, and teachers and staff at K through 12 schools. It can also be valuable for state officials, district administrators, school boards, teacher union leaders, and others that play a role in providing safe and disaster-resistant schools for all. Parents, caregivers, and students can also use this Guide to learn about ways to advocate for safe schools in their communities.

Hazus® Estimated Annualized Earthquake Losses for the United States

Policies and practices associated with minimization of earthquake impacts in the United States have been shaped by knowledge of the earthquake hazard, which focuses on the location and type of faulting and ground failure, and the distribution of strong ground motion or shaking.

While hazard maps contribute to understanding earthquakes, there is increasing recognition among policy makers, researchers and practitioners of the need to analyze and map the earthquake risk in the United States. As urban development continues in earthquake-prone regions there is growing concern about the exposure of buildings, lifelines (e.g., utilities and transportation systems), and people to the potential effects of destructive earthquakes.

Earthquake risk analysis begins with hazard identification, but goes beyond that to investigate the potential consequences to people and property, including buildings, lifelines, and the environment.

Mitigation Best Practice - Seismic Retrofit Protects Historic Theater

This story is about the historic Dock Street Theater, located in Charleston, South Caroline, It underwent a major retrofit in 2010 that offers significant protection from both seismic and high wind damages.

Protect Yourself During Earthquakes Poster

Do you know what to do, wherever you are, when the earth begins to shake?

FEMA P-787, Catalog of FEMA Building Science Branch Publications and Training Courses (2016)

Now in its fifth edition, this catalog includes descriptions of available FEMA publications, training courses, and workshops for natural hazards. The publication descriptions are first organized by primary hazard (earthquake, flood, high wind, multi-hazard, and other), and then by stakeholder groups: individuals and homeowners, teachers and kids, private sector and small business, community planning and policy, building professionals and engineers (contractors, builders, engineers, and architects), and Mitigation Assessment Team (MAT) reports, which are applicable to all stakeholders. Listings are further arranged by subject areas and in order of publication date (the most recent first) in the text. These materials are also listed by FEMA publication number in Table 1 starting on page 107. Each listing includes a set of icons that indicates the applicable hazards and whether the resource is available online, on CD, and/or in print.

At present the fifth edition is only available as a download. The print and CD version will be available in the near future.

You can order this item as a CD or a hardcopy from the FEMA Distribution Center.

The Importance of Building Codes in Earthquake-Prone Communities Fact Sheet

There is an often-repeated saying, “Earthquakes don’t kill people, buildings do.” Although you can’t control the seismic hazard in the community where you live or work, you can influence the most important factor in saving lives and reducing losses from an earthquake: the adoption and enforcement of up-to-date building codes. Evaluating older buildings and retrofitting structural and non-structural components also are critical steps. To survive and remain resilient, communities should also strengthen their core infrastructure and critical facilities so that these can withstand an earthquake or other disaster and continue to provide essential services.

2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (FEMA P-1052) Part 1 of 5

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 1 includes Chapters 1–3. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (FEMA P-1052) Part 5 of 5

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 5 includes Chapters 16-18. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (FEMA P-1052) Part 4 of 5

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 4 includes Chapters 13-15. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (FEMA P-1052) Part 2 of 5

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 2 includes Chapters 4-6. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

2015 NEHRP Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (FEMA P-1052) Part 3 of 5

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These updated training and instructional materials supplement the design examples. FEMA P-1052 Part 3 includes Chapters 7-12. FEMA P-1052 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

2015 NEHRP Provisions: Design Examples Flow Charts (FEMA P-1051B)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

These flow charts are part of the design examples. FEMA P-1051 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

2015 NEHRP Provisions: Design Examples (FEMA P-1051)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

This edition of the design examples reflects the technical changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions. FEMA P-1051 CD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

2015 NEHRP Provisions Volume II: Part 3 Resource Papers (FEMA P-1050-2)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

Part III contains resource papers covering new concepts and methods for trial use and other supporting materials for design professionals. FEMA P-1050 DVD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520. The DVD includes additional design standard and building code-related resources.

2015 NEHRP Provisions Volume I: Part 1 Provisions, Part 2 Commentary (FEMA P-1050-1)

The 2015 NEHRP Provisions marks the ninth edition of this technical resource document since its first publication in 1985. FEMA is proud to sponsor this cycle of the NEHRP Provisions update, and to publish the new edition for use by national codes and standards organizations and the general public. The 2015 NEHRP Provisions are a new knowledge-based resource document intended to translate research results into engineering design practice. The new changes in the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have incorporated extensive results and findings from recent research projects, problem-focused studies, and post-earthquake investigation reports conducted by various professional organizations, research institutes, universities, material industries, and the NEHRP agencies. Similar to the previous edition, the 2015 NEHRP Provisions have adopted by reference the American Structural Engineers Association (ASCE) / Structural Engineering Institute (SEI) standard ASCE/SEI 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for New Buildings and Other Structures as the baseline.

Part I of the 2015 NEHRP Provisions includes recommended new changes and modifications to the adopted ASCE/SEI 7-10. Part II provides a full commentary for Part I, consisting of new commentaries integrated with the ASCE/SEI 7-10 commentary.

FEMA P-1050 DVD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520. The DVD includes additional design standard and building code-related resources.

National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) Fact Sheet

The National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) is FEMA’s program for delivering earthquake education and awareness training to the public. NETAP helps State, local, and Indian tribal governments, non-profit organizations, and the private sector obtain the knowledge and tools needed to plan and implement effective earthquake mitigation strategies.

Earthquake-Resistant Design Concepts: An Introduction to the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures FEMA P-749

One of the goals of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is to encourage design and construction practices that address the earthquake hazard and minimize the resulting risk to life and property. The publication of FEMA P-749, a companion guide to the 2009 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA P-750), reaffirms FEMA’s ongoing commitment to achieving this goal. Understanding the basis for the seismic regulations in the nation’s building codes and standards is important to those outside the technical community including elected officials, decision-makers in the insurance and financial communities, and individual building or business owners and other concerned citizens. This document is intended to provide these interested individuals with a readily understandable explanation of the intent and requirements of seismic design in general and the Provisions in particular.

FEMA P-749 is available in a print publication for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520.

Earthquake-Resistant Design Concepts: An Introduction to the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures FEMA P-749 Text Only Text Only

One of the goals of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is to encourage design and construction practices that address the earthquake hazard and minimize the resulting risk to life and property. The publication of FEMA P-749, a companion guide to the 2009 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA P-750), reaffirms FEMA’s ongoing commitment to achieving this goal. Understanding the basis for the seismic regulations in the nation’s building codes and standards is important to those outside the technical community including elected officials, decision-makers in the insurance and financial communities, and individual building or business owners and other concerned citizens. This document is intended to provide these interested individuals with a readily understandable explanation of the intent and requirements of seismic design in general and the Provisions in particular.

2015 NEHRP Provisions Volume 1: Part 1 Provisions, Part 2 Commentary (FEMA P-1050-1)

Part I of the 2015 NEHRP Provisions includes recommended new changes and modifications to the adopted ASCE/SEI 7-10. Part II provides a full commentary for Part I, consisting of new commentaries integrated with the ASCE/SEI 7-10 commentary.

FEMA P-1050 DVD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520. The DVD includes additional design standard and building code-related resources.

2015 NEHRP Provisions Volume II: Part 3 Resource Papers (FEMA P-1050-2)

Part III contains resource papers covering new concepts and methods for trial use and other supporting materials for design professionals. FEMA P-1050 DVD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520. The DVD includes additional design standard and building code-related resources.

2015 NEHRP Provisions: Design Examples (FEMA P-1051)

Part III contains resource papers covering new concepts and methods for trial use and other supporting materials for design professionals. FEMA P-1050 DVD is available for order from the FEMA Distribution Center, 1-800-480-2520. The DVD includes additional design standard and building code-related resources.

NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures. 2009 Edition P-750

The 2009 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions is the seventh update since the first publication in 1985. This new edition adopts ASCE/SEI 7-05 by reference, which allows the Provisions to resume its role as the resource for introducing new knowledge, innovative concepts, and design methods to improve the national seismic standards and codes. The Provisions are presented in a new one-volume format with three parts. Part 1 adopts ASCE/SEI 7-05 by reference and presents consensus approved modifications to the reference standard. Part 2 provides a completely rewritten commentary that explains how to design using the reference standard. Part 3 comprises a series of resource papers that focus on emerging seismic design concepts and methods for exposure to and trial use by the design community and on issues that have proven historically difficult or complex to adequately codify. FEMA P-750 CD contains the Provisions, design maps, and other supporting materials.

Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings P-547

This seismic rehabilitation techniques document is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) family of publications addressing seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings. It describes common seismic rehabilitation techniques used for buildings represented in the set of standard building types in FEMA seismic publications. This document supersedes FEMA 172, NEHRP Handbook of Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, which was published in 1992. Since then, many rehabilitation techniques have been developed and used for repair and rehabilitation of earthquake-damaged and seismically deficient buildings.

Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage—A Practical Guide (FEMA E-74)

The purpose of this version of FEMA 74, FEMA E-74 Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage—A Practical Guide, Fourth Edition, is the same as for the original: to explain the sources of nonstructural earthquake damage in simple terms and to provide methods for reducing potential risks. Since nonstructural failures have accounted for the majority of earthquake damage in several recent U.S. earthquakes, it is critical to raise awareness of potential nonstructural risks, the costly consequences of nonstructural failures, and the opportunities that exist to limit future losses.

This fourth edition of the FEMA 74 document (renamed FEMA E-74) explains the sources of earthquake damage that can occur in nonstructural components and provides information on effective methods for reducing risk associated with nonstructural earthquake damage.

Earthquake Strengthening of Cripple Walls in Wood-Frame Dwellings (FEMA P-1024-RA2)

On August 24, 2014, a magnitude-6.0 earthquake occurred in Napa, California. In response to this earthquake, the Special Projects task of the National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) was used to fund an investigation. At the time, this event had not yet been declared a federal disaster, and disaster funds were therefore not available. Because of limitations to this funding, some issues, such as performance of lifelines or building investigations in additional areas, could not be investigated. Past earthquakes in California have resulted in significant improvements to national and local building codes. For the 2014 South Napa earthquake, work was focused on documenting the observed performance of buildings and nonstructural components in order to lead into future improvements in future building codes, and to do so within six months.

Recovery Advisory 2 (RA2) is Appendix B of the FEMA P-1024 report. RA2 addresses measures to mitigate cripple wall vulnerabilities before an earthquake occurs and provides information on how and when to use the accompanying FEMA Plan Set.

Repair of Earthquake-Damaged Masonry Fireplace Chimneys (FEMA P-1024-RA1)

On August 24, 2014, a magnitude-6.0 earthquake occurred in Napa, California. In response to this earthquake, the Special Projects task of the National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) was used to fund an investigation. At the time, this event had not yet been declared a federal disaster, and disaster funds were therefore not available. Because of limitations to this funding, some issues, such as performance of lifelines or building investigations in additional areas, could not be investigated. Past earthquakes in California have resulted in significant improvements to national and local building codes. For the 2014 South Napa earthquake, work was focused on documenting the observed performance of buildings and nonstructural components in order to lead into future improvements in future building codes, and to do so within six months.

Recovery Advisory 1 (RA1) is Appendix A of the FEMA P-1024 report. RA1 recommends best practices for reconstruction of earthquake‐damaged masonry chimneys in one‐and two‐family dwellings to minimize risk of damage in future earthquakes.

Performance of Buildings and Nonstructural Components in the 2014 South Napa Earthquake (FEMA P-1024)

On August 24, 2014, a magnitude-6.0 earthquake occurred in Napa, California. In response to this earthquake, the Special Projects task of the National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) was used to fund an investigation. At the time, this event had not yet been declared a federal disaster, and disaster funds were therefore not available. Because of limitations to this funding, some issues, such as performance of lifelines or building investigations in additional areas, could not be investigated. Past earthquakes in California have resulted in significant improvements to national and local building codes. For the 2014 South Napa earthquake, work was focused on documenting the observed performance of buildings and nonstructural components in order to lead into future improvements in future building codes, and to do so within six months.

The goal of the project was to assess and document the performance of a population of buildings impacted by the earthquake and develop a series of recommendations to further improve mitigation.

The FEMA National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: Accomplishments in Fiscal Year 2013

The FEMA National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: Accomplishments in Fiscal Year 2013
fema_earthquakes_fema-national-earthquake-hazards-reduction-program-accomplishments-in-fiscal-year-2013
The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), which was first authorized by Congress in 1977, coordinates the earthquake-related activities of the Federal Government. The goal of NEHRP is to mitigate earthquake losses in the United States through basic and directed research and implementation activities in the fields of earthquake science and engineering. Under NEHRP, FEMA is responsible for developing effective earthquake risk reduction tools and promoting their implementation, as well as supporting the development of disaster-resistant building codes and standards. FEMA's NEHRP activities are led by the FEMA Headquarters (HQ), Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Risk Reduction Division, Building Science Branch, in strong partnership with other FEMA HQ Directorates, and in coordination with the FEMA Regions, the States, the earthquake consortia, and other public and private partners. This report describes selected FEMA NEHRP accomplishments (HQ and Regional), followed by highlights from the States and U.S. territories and organizations which received FEMA support for NEHRP activities. The accomplishments described in this report showcase how FEMA and its partners, working in collaboration, continued to make progress toward earthquake loss-reduction nationwide.

New guidance and tools, continued and expanded support by FEMA Regional and Headquarters staff for ShakeOut drills and the 2013 Building Safety Month, training in earthquake topics offered at the State and local level, and best practices and new and innovative projects undertaken by States and U.S. Territories and organizations.

The FEMA National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: Accomplishments in Fiscal Year 2014

The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), which was first authorized by Congress in 1977, coordinates the earthquake-related activities of the Federal Government. The goal of NEHRP is to mitigate earthquake losses in the United States through basic and directed research and implementation activities in the fields of earthquake science and engineering. Under NEHRP, FEMA is responsible for developing effective earthquake risk reduction tools and promoting their implementation, as well as supporting the development of disaster-resistant building codes and standards. FEMA's NEHRP activities are led by the FEMA Headquarters (HQ), Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Risk Reduction Division, Building Science Branch, in strong partnership with other FEMA HQ Directorates, and in coordination with the FEMA Regions, the States, the earthquake consortia, and other public and private partners. This report describes selected FEMA NEHRP accomplishments (HQ and Regional), followed by highlights from the States and U.S. territories and organizations which received FEMA support for NEHRP activities. The accomplishments described in this report showcase how FEMA and its partners, working in collaboration, continued to make progress toward earthquake loss-reduction nationwide.

Much of the work completed in FY 2014 is helping to reduce earthquake risk, and serving as the foundation for realizing effective long-term outcomes.

The Adventures of Terry the Turtle and Gracie the Wonder Dog, Grades 3–6

This storybook for children in grades 3-6 relates the adventures of the safety-conscious mayor of Shakeyville (Terry the Turtle) and a group of safety volunteers who meet with students at the local elementary school to teach them about earthquake safety. The students discover the importance of earthquake safety and preparedness. Included are suggestions for creating a disaster kit, illustrations of what to do if an earthquake happens (Drop, Cover, and Hold), and a list of resources.

Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook. Second Edition

The Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) handbook can be used by trained personnel to identify, inventory, and screen buildings that are potentially seismically vulnerable. The RVS procedure comprises a method and several forms that help users to quickly identify, inventory, and score buildings according to their risk of collapse if hit by major earthquakes. The RVS handbook describes how to identify the structural type and key weakness characteristics, how to complete the screening forms, and how to manage a successful RVS program.

Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook. Second Edition

The Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) handbook can be used by trained personnel to identify, inventory, and screen buildings that are potentially seismically vulnerable. The RVS procedure comprises a method and several forms that help users to quickly identify, inventory, and score buildings according to their risk of collapse if hit by major earthquakes. The RVS handbook describes how to identify the structural type and key weakness characteristics, how to complete the screening forms, and how to manage a successful RVS program.

Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: Supporting Documentation. Third Edition (FEMA P-155)

The Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) handbook can be used by trained personnel to identify, inventory, and screen buildings that are potentially seismically vulnerable. The RVS procedure comprises a method and several forms that help users to quickly identify, inventory, and score buildings according to their risk of collapse if hit by major earthquakes. The RVS handbook describes how to identify the structural type and key weakness characteristics, how to complete the screening forms, and how to manage a successful RVS program.

The third edition of the Supporting Documentation (FEMA P-155) describes the technical background and process used to update the Handbook and the revisions considered and conclusions reached. Extensive detail is also provided in FEMA P-155 on the third edition scoring and associated risk.

Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook. Third Edition (FEMA P-154)

The Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) handbook can be used by trained personnel to identify, inventory, and screen buildings that are potentially seismically vulnerable. The RVS procedure comprises a method and several forms that help users to quickly identify, inventory, and score buildings according to their risk of collapse if hit by major earthquakes. The RVS handbook describes how to identify the structural type and key weakness characteristics, how to complete the screening forms, and how to manage a successful RVS program.

The third edition of the Handbook (FEMA P-154) includes extensive updates, including improvements in the methodology, the screening forms, and the underlying scoring; the addition of a more detailed professional screening option (level 2 screening); new quick reference guides with extensive figures illustrating important building characteristics; an electronic scoring option; and guidance on how to administer an effective screening program. The FEMA P-154 CD contains PowerPoint slides with instructor notes; the RVS Student Manual (FEMA 154SM); data collection forms; and PDF and text file versions of FEMA P-154 (both FEMA P-154 and FEMA P-155 include the FEMA P-154 CD).

Earthquake Home Hazard Hunt Poster (FEMA 528)

This poster provides visuals and descriptions so that homeowners can identify and fix at-risk areas of their homes to reduce future earthquake damage and disruption.

Recommendations for reducing earthquake hazards in your home.

Drop, Cover, and Hold On Poster (FEMA 529)

This poster (17-inches by 22-inches) is intended for classroom use and updates a previous edition. The poster depicts a teacher and students in a classroom responding appropriately to the first sign of an earthquake (Drop, Cover, and Hold On).

2009 NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials Part 1 of 2

The NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures, 2009 Edition (FEMA P-750) is an important resource that translates new knowledge, research results, and design methods for the national standards and building codes. In collaboration with the Building Seismic Safety Council, FEMA has published two supporting documents: 2009 NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions: Design Examples (FEMA P-751CD) and the new 2009 NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (FEMA P-752CD). FEMA P-752CD presents a series of PowerPoint slides and instructional materials (student handouts and notes pages) that are aligned with the design examples in FEMA P-751CD. In addition to materials updated from its previous edition (FEMA P-451B CD), FEMA P-752CD includes new units on Ground Motions, Composite/Steel Construction, Pre-Cast Design, and Seismically Isolated Structures, as well as an introduction to the latest versions of NONLIN and EQ Tools, two free software programs for the computation of dynamic response analysis of simple linear and nonlinear structures and design earthquake ground motions.

2009 NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials Part 2 of 2

The NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures, 2009 Edition (FEMA P-750) is an important resource that translates new knowledge, research results, and design methods for the national standards and building codes. In collaboration with the Building Seismic Safety Council, FEMA has published two supporting documents: 2009 NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions: Design Examples (FEMA P-751CD) and the new 2009 NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions: Training and Instructional Materials (FEMA P-752CD). FEMA P-752CD presents a series of PowerPoint slides and instructional materials (student handouts and notes pages) that are aligned with the design examples in FEMA P-751CD. In addition to materials updated from its previous edition (FEMA P-451B CD), FEMA P-752CD includes new units on Ground Motions, Composite/Steel Construction, Pre-Cast Design, and Seismically Isolated Structures, as well as an introduction to the latest versions of NONLIN and EQ Tools, two free software programs for the computation of dynamic response analysis of simple linear and nonlinear structures and design earthquake ground motions.

Other Business Tools

The following document provides a list of tools to help businesses plan, prepare, and mitigate the effects of earthquakes. Each section includes a short description of the organization that created it as well as a link that will take you to the respective page of each resource. Some of the materials listed are not specifically for businesses, but could still be found useful by the private sector in that they promote earthquake preparedness and mitigation in homes and therefore increase a community’s disaster resilience and ability to recover quickly after a disaster. The quicker the recovery period within a community, the faster businesses will be fully functional and operating. This list is not intended to be all inclusive, rather a collection of the tools created by FEMA and its partners.

Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide. Third Edition

This well-illustrated publication describes the sources of nonstructural earthquake damage and provides information on effective methods of reducing potential risks from such damage. The guide assists in identifying potential hazards and provides specific guidance on upgrades that readers can do themselves. The guide contains diagrams and photographs, a glossary, references, and an annotated bibliography for those who wish additional information. A nonstructural inventory form, a checklist of nonstructural earthquake hazards, and an explanation of nonstructural risk ratings are included as appendices. The target audiences for the guide are building owners, facility managers, maintenance personnel, homeowners, store or office managers, business proprietors, organizational department heads, and others concerned with building safety and the continuation of business. This publication is currently being updated and a new edition will be available online as an electronic publication in 2010.

Seismic Considerations for Communities at Risk (FEMA 83 1995)

This publication is a companion volume to the 1994 edition of NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. The publication provides individuals and community decision-makers with information to assess seismic risk, make informed decisions about seismic safety in their communities, and determine what can be done to mitigate risk. The publication includes information on the scope of earthquake risk in the U.S., the effects of earthquakes on buildings, how design can reduce earthquake effects, and the importance of seismic codes and the NEHRP Provisions. Also included are factors to consider when deciding whether and how to take action to reduce earthquake risk and suggestions for stimulating community action.

The compressed file contains the PDF document and a text file for use with screen readers.

Creating a Seismic Safety Advisory Board: A Guide to Earthquake Risk Management (FEMA 266 1995)

This guide assists states, state coalitions, and local governments in creating, developing, and nurturing seismic safety advisory boards. The guide provides information on board operations, including staffing and funding a board, and guidelines for strategic planning and developing a model seismic risk management program to measure progress. The appendices include model executive orders, enabling legislation, staff duty descriptions, workshop designs, and workshop rosters; examples of an interstate compact, articles of incorporation, and corporate bylaws; a list of existing seismic safety advisory boards; and a lexicon of terms.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA 156, Typical Costs for Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. Volume 1: Summary. Second Edition.

This publication provides a methodology to estimate the costs of seismic rehabilitation projects at various locations in the United States. This edition is based on a sample of almost 2,100 projects, with data collected using a standard protocol, strict quality control verification, and a reliability rating. A sophisticated statistical methodology applied to this database yields cost estimates of increasing quality and reliability as more and more detailed information on the building inventory is used in the estimation process. Guidance is also provided to calculate the range of uncertainty associated with this process.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

Earthquake Resistant Construction of Gas and Liquid Fuel Pipeline Systems Serving or Regulated by the Federal Government (FEMA 233 1992)

This report summarizes the vulnerability of gas and liquid fuel pipeline systems to damage in past earthquakes. The report lists the available standards and technologies that can protect such facilities against earthquake damage. An overview of measures taken by various federal agencies to protect pipeline systems is presented. The appendix presents summaries of statements made by representatives of federal agencies and other organizations contacted during the study.

The compressed file contains two files, the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

Seismic Retrofit Incentive Programs: A Handbook for Local Governments (FEMA 254 1994)

This handbook assists local government officials in developing seismic retrofit incentive programs. The handbook summarizes several case studies that describe the steps that seven California cities have taken to promote and implement retrofitting in their communities. Included are sections on using zoning as an incentive to retrofit; local government finance options; a description of the Unreinforced Masonry Buildings (URM) law and of recent legislation; and liability implications and considerations in the event of an earthquake.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

2009 NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions: Design Examples (FEMA P-751)

This publication provides a series of design examples using the 2009 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions (FEMA P-750) for different types of construction materials and building configurations. These design examples demonstrate the design procedures used in the NEHRP Recommended Provisions, which serve as the basis for the nation's building codes, and make an excellent instructional tool.

Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis (FEMA P 646)

Vertical evacuation is a programmatic issue central to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, driven by the fact that there are coastal communities along the West Coast of the United States that are vulnerable to tsunamis that could be generated within minutes of an earthquake on the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Vertical evacuation structures provide a means to create areas of refuge for communities in which evacuation out of the inundation zone is not feasible. This guidance document includes the following information to assist in the planning and design of tsunami vertical evacuation structures: general information on the tsunami hazard and its history; guidance on determining the tsunami hazard, including tsunami depth and velocity; different options for tsunami vertical evacuation structures; guidance on siting, spacing, sizing, and elevation considerations; determining tsunami and earthquake loads and related structural design criteria; and structural design concepts and other considerations.

Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Multi-Unit Wood-Frame Buildings With Weak First Stories (FEMA-P-807)

Multi-unit wood-frame buildings with a weak first story represent a significant risk in highly seismic regions of the United States because of their high potential for collapse. This collapse potential is due primarily to their soft or weak first-story walls, which have often been weakened by large numbers of openings such as garages or store front windows. FEMA P-807 addresses seismic retrofitting of weak-story wood-frame buildings in seismically active regions of the United States, with a focus on multi-family, multi-story buildings with weak first stories, and apartment buildings with tuck-under parking. These seismic retrofitting guidelines are the first to focus solely on the weak first story and to provide just enough additional strength to protect the first floor from collapse but not so much as to drive earthquake forces into the upper stories, placing them at risk of collapse. They are also the first to take into account the strength provided by existing non-structural walls, making seismic retrofitting more affordable. An electronic tool was developed as part of the project to help apply the rules and perform the calculations described in the report. The Weak Story Tool (WST) is available for download as a zip file. Note that the report contains all the data, formulas, and procedural background needed to apply the method without using the WST.

Fiscal Year 2011 Earthquake Consortia (CUSEC, WSSPC, and NESEC) Guidance and Application Kit

FEMA proposes to enter into a Cooperative Agreement for an estimated $850,000 with three Earthquake Consortia for the purposes of supporting nonprofit organizations which: deliver education and training to community and State officials; develop seismic policies and share information to promote programs intended to reduce earthquake-related losses; and reduce the loss of life, injuries, property losses, and social and economic disruption that results from all hazards. Completed applications must be submitted no later than 11:59 PM Eastern, August 17, 2011.

Fiscal Year 2011 Earthquake Technology Transfer (EERI) Guidance and Application Kit

FEMA proposes to enter into a Cooperative Agreement for an estimated $355,000 with one (1) national, non-profit technical earthquake society (architects, engineers, planners, public officials, social scientists) composed of a membership from practicing professionals, educators, government officials, and building code regulators. Completed applications must be submitted no later than 11:59 PM Eastern, September 8, 2011.

Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors: Component Equivalency Methodology (FEMA-P-795)

This publication builds upon an earlier FEMA publication, FEMA P-695 - Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors (FEMA, 2009b). While the methodology contained in FEMA P-695 provides a means to evaluate complete seismic-force-resisting systems proposed for adoption into building codes, a component-based methodology was needed to reliably evaluate structural elements, connections, or subassemblies proposed as substitutes for equivalent components in established seismic-force-resisting systems. The Component Equivalency Methodology presented in this document fills this need by maintaining consistency with the probabilistic, system-based collapse assessment concepts of FEMA P-695 while providing simple procedures for comparing the tested performance of different components. It is intended to be of assistance to organizations, such as the International Code Council Evaluation Service, who need to compare the seismic performance of alternate components to those contained in established seismic force resisting system.

Earthquake-Resistant Design Concepts: An Introduction to the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA-P-749)

One of the goals of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is to encourage design and construction practices that address the earthquake hazard and minimize the resulting risk to life and property. The publication of FEMA P-749, a companion guide to the 2009 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA P-750), reaffirms FEMA’s ongoing commitment to achieving this goal. Understanding the basis for the seismic regulations in the nation’s building codes and standards is important to those outside the technical community including elected officials, decision-makers in the insurance and financial communities, and individual building or business owners and other concerned citizens. This document is intended to provide these interested individuals with a readily understandable explanation of the intent and requirements of seismic design in general and the Provisions in particular.

Earthquake Mitigation for Hospitals (FEMA-P-767)

This PowerPoint presentation is based on FEMA 396, Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of Hospital Buildings: Providing Protection to People and Buildings. Recognizing that seismic mitigation can be expensive and disruptive, the purpose of this workshop is to introduce you to an innovative approach to seismic mitigation called “incremental seismic rehabilitation.” The approach essentially identifies systematic “opportunities” to conduct mitigation activities. Students are introduced to earthquake hazards in health care settings and learn about methods that can be used to analyze and reduce risks of damage in hospitals and other medical buildings. By implementing sound, cost-effective mitigation measures, health care facilities can reduce or eliminate seismic risks and ensure that, in the event of an earthquake, they can remain in operation to serve their communities.

Seismic Rehabilitation Training For One and Two Family Dwellings (FEMA P-593)

Seismic Rehabilitation Training for One- and Two-Family Wood-Frame Dwellings, FEMA P-593, promotes seismic rehabilitation of one- and two-family dwellings, in order to reduce earthquake damage losses and increase dwelling habitability following moderate to major earthquakes. This is done by introducing the trainee to the effect of earthquakes on wood-frame dwellings, identifying common seismic vulnerabilities, and identifying rehabilitation approaches and available guidelines.

Unreinforced Masonry Buildings and Earthquakes: Developing Successful Risk Reduction Programs (FEMA-P-774)

This publication provides guidance on reducing the risks faced by those who own, occupy, or use unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings in seismically active areas. Among structures currently in use in U.S. communities, URM buildings are typically the most vulnerable to earthquake damage and the type of construction that is most commonly singled out for voluntary and mandatory seismic risk reduction programs. The publication includes illustrations and photographs of URM buildings and describes their seismic vulnerabilities. It discusses policy and regulatory issues that often must be considered in efforts to reduce URM risks, such as retrofit costs, the economic viability of older buildings, numbers of occupants and types of use, and historic or architectural values. Rather than prescribing a rigid sequence of steps for URM risk reduction, FEMA P-774 documents a wide variety of successful approaches that have been developed across the United States.

Effects of Strength and Stiffness Degradation on Seismic Response

This document is a follow-on publication to Improvement of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures (FEMA 440). It provides information that will improve nonlinear analysis for cyclic response, considering cyclic and in-cycle degradation of strength and stiffness. Recent work has demonstrated that it is important to be able to differentiate between cyclic and in-cycle degradation in order to more accurately model degrading behavior, while current practice only recognizes cyclic degradation, or does not distinguish between the two. The material contained within this publication is expected to improve nonlinear modeling of structural systems, and ultimately make the seismic retrofit of existing hazardous buildings more cost-effective.

Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors (FEMA-P-695)

This publication presents a recommended methodology for reliably quantifying building system performance and response parameters for use in seismic design. The parameters or “seismic performance factors” addressed include the response modification coefficient (R factor), system overstrength factor, and deflection amplification factor. The methodology is a refinement of an earlier preliminary methodology, and is based on a review of relevant research on nonlinear response and collapse simulation, benchmarking studies of selected structural systems, feedback from an expanded group of experts and potential users, and evaluations of additional structural systems conducted to verify the technical soundness and applicability of the approach. This draft document has been released for public comment and interim use.

Engineering Guideline for Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation

This publication serves as a technical resource for design professionals on the topic of incremental seismic rehabilitation and strategies for implementing this approach in practice. The publication includes discussions on several topics including building maintenance, capital improvement and decision-making processes as a basis for communicating with decision-makers on seismic rehabilitation opportunities. In addition, other resource documents for seismic rehabilitation are reviewed. FEMA P-420 is a companion manual to the Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation Publications (FEMA 395-400) targeted to engineers and design professionals.

Interim Testing Protocols for Determining the Seismic Performance Characteristics of Structural and Nonstructural Components

This publication provides methodologies to measure the seismic performance of buildings’ structural or nonstructural components in a consistent and comparable manner. It describes two laboratory testing protocols that determine fragility functions for various building systems and components. The first protocol, Quasi-Static Cyclic Testing of Structural and Nonstructural Components and Systems, can be used to test elements whose behavior is sensitive to the relative motion of several floors or vertical connections within a building. The second protocol, Shake Table Testing of Structural and Nonstructural Components and Systems, is designed for testing elements that are sensitive to the dynamic effects of motion imparted at a single point of attachment. Although these protocols are intended as interim methods that will be finalized over time as they are used and evaluated by researchers nationwide, they are nevertheless a significant step forward in the development of performance-based seismic design.

Designing for Earthquakes: A Manual for Architects

Currently no single publication exists that provides up-to-date information necessary to architects, presented in a form that is attractive, readable, and intelligible to a non-specialist audience. This revised publication will fill that gap. The present publication consists of a series of chapters that provide the foundation for an understanding of seismic design, each authored by an expert in the field. The authors were given freedom to decide the scope of their chapters; and thus this publication represents expert opinion rather than consensus. Designing for Earthquakes: a Manual for Architects is intended to explain the principles of seismic design for those without a technical background in engineering and seismology. The primary intended audience is that of architects and includes practicing architects, architectural students, and faculty in architectural schools who teach structures and seismic design.

Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines: Program Plan for New and Existing Buildings

This publication is a step-by-step program plan for the current FEMA project with the Applied Technology Council to develop next-generation performance-based seismic design procedures and guidelines for structural and nonstructural components in new and existing buildings. This plan offers a background on current code design procedures, introduces performance-based seismic design concepts, identifies improvements needed in current seismic design practice, and outlines the tasks and projected costs for a two-phase program to develop next-generation performance-based seismic design procedures and guidelines.

NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples (FEMA-P-451)

This publication provides a series of design examples using the 2003 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions (FEMA 450) for different types of construction materials and building configurations. These design examples demonstrate the design procedures used in the NEHRP Recommended Provisions, which serve as the basis for the nation’s building codes, and make an excellent training tool. Instructional materials (FEMA 451B) are also available for use with this publication.

FEMA 232, Homebuilders' Guide to Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction (2006)

This guide replaces the Home Builder's Guide to Seismic Resistant Construction and all earlier versions of FEMA 232. It presents seismic design and construction guidance for one- and two-family light frame residential structures that can be utilized by homebuilders, homeowners, and other non-engineers, and provides supplemental information to the 2003 edition of the International Residential Code. Includes background information on the principles of seismic resistance and how earthquake forces impact conventional residential construction and more detailed information on architectural considerations. Discussions of masonry and stone elements, examples of typical floor plans for earthquake resistant one- and two-story homes, excerpts of seismic requirements from building codes, and checklists for home builders are included. The guide also presents a series of "above code recommendations" and low cost measures that would increase the performance of the building and help keep it functional after an earthquake.

Earthquake Preparedness: What Every Child Care Provider Needs to Know (FEMA-P-240)

This publication features practical and low-cost techniques to make child care facilities safer in the event of an earthquake, whether they are based in a home or a larger facility. The publication offers tips for conducting earthquake drills and includes a checklist of supplies to keep on hand in an emergency kit.

Seismic Considerations for Steel Storage Racks Located in Areas Accessible to the Public (FEMA-P-460)

This report highlights issues for consideration in the seismic design, installation, ongoing inspection, maintenance, and use of steel single selective pallet storage racks located in areas of retail warehouse stores and other facilities accessible to the general public. Included are a review of the performance of storage racks in past earthquakes; a history of the development of codes and standards used for storage rack design and current storage rack design practices; guidance on recommended performance goals and design requirements for storage racks; guidelines for implementation/responsibilities associated with the specification, procurement, and installation of pallet storage racks; suggested guidance for securing contents; recommendations for operations and use; suggested guidance for quality assurance programs; a discussion of current and past storage rack research and testing; suggestions for post-earthquake inspections; and proposed modifications to seismic design provisions and standards for racks.

Promoting Seismic Safety: Guidance for Advocates (FEMA-P-474)

This booklet offers research-based advice to assist seismic safety advocates in presenting risk reduction information and ideas. The full-version of Promoting Seismic Safety: Guidance for Advocates is a 200-plus page report that consists of two parts. PDF files are available for downloaded from the MCEER website at http://mceer.buffalo.edu/publications/tricenter/04-SP02/default.asp. Part One is this guidance document for advocates. Part Two is a set of background papers developed by the authors as part of the project.

FEMA P-530, Earthquake Safety at Home (March 2020)

Half of all Americans live in areas subject to earthquake risk, and most Americans will travel to seismically active regions in their lifetime. FEMA is fostering awareness of earthquake risks in the United States through the newly developed FEMA P-530, Earthquake Safety at Home. FEMA P-530 is intended to show readers why earthquakes matter where they live, and how they can “Prepare, Protect, Survive, Respond, Recover and Repair” from an earthquake. This publication will help readers become familiar with why and where earthquakes might occur. It discusses wide-ranging steps that readers can take to adequately prepare and protect themselves, their family, and their belongings. These include: developing family response plans, assembling earthquake disaster supplies, securing heavy objects and furniture, retrofitting a home, and more.

Earthquake Safety Activities for Children and Teachers

This updated publication provides elementary school teachers with ready-to-use, hands-on activities that explain what happens during an earthquake, how to prepare for earthquake shaking, and how to stay safe during and after an earthquake. Included are a variety of handouts for students, including maps, songs, “hazard hunt” worksheets, and earthquake safety checklists.

Improvement of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures (FEMA-P-440)

This state-of-the-art resource captures the latest advances in nonlinear static analysis. It evaluates FEMA and Applied Technology Council (ATC) procedures for estimating the response of structures to ground shaking and attempts to address the significantly different results in estimates of maximum displacement that these procedures generate. This report sets the stage for future improvements to FEMA 356 or the ATC report, Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings (ATC-40).

NEHRP Recommended Provisions and Commentary for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. 2003 Edition (FEMA-P-450)

The 2003 edition has been superseded by the 2009 edition (FEMA P-750). The 2003 edition can be used as a resource document for design professionals, local building officials, and federal regulatory agencies whose technical design standards or code requirements refer to this edition of the Provisions. The 2003 edition present criteria for the design and construction of new buildings, of additions and alterations to existing buildings, and of non-building structures to enable them to resist the effects of earthquake ground motions. The CD contains related seismic design maps, design map value calculation software, and previous Provisions (1997 and 2000). The 2000 edition (FEMA 368 and 369) and FEMA 451 and 451B are available online.

Primer for Design Professionals (FEMA-P-389)

Primer for Design Professionals:
Communicating with Owners and Managers of New Buildings on Earthquake Risk
PROVIDING PROTECTION TO PEOPLE AND BUILDINGS

Installing Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment (FEMA-P-413)

This guide provides equipment installers with information on how to attach electrical equipment to buildings to minimize earthquake damage. Many examples of attachments are presented, including anchors and seismic restraints. An electrical danger instruction chart and safety requirements and codes are included.

Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (FEMA-P-414)

This is one of three fully illustrated guides that show equipment installers how to attach mechanical equipment (FEMA 412), electrical equipment (FEMA 413), and duct and pipe (FEMA 414) to buildings to minimize earthquake damage. The guides describe various types of equipment and include a chart that identifies the types of recommended equipment, the configuration for restraint, and the type of attachment needed. Step-by-step instructions and precautions for each type of equipment and methods for installing the equipment are included. Examples of anchoring and seismic restraint devices; attachment types and instructions for installing equipment in different configurations; and special cases for housekeeping pads, cable assemblies, supports for control panels, and residential equipment are included. The publication does not cover non-building structural framing required to elevate equipment above the floor.

Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of Hospital Buildings : Providing Protection to People and Buildings (FEMA-P-396)

This manual provides healthcare organizations with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for those buildings.

Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12): Providing Protection to People and Buildings (2003) (FEMA-P-395)

This publication was developed to provide school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings, and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for those buildings.

Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment (FEMA-P-412)

This illustrated guide shows equipment installers how to attach mechanical equipment to a building to minimize earthquake damage. Many examples using anchoring and seismic-restraint devices are included. The guide begins with a list of various types of equipment and includes a chart that identifies the equipment, the recommended configuration for restraint, and the type of attachment needed. The second section provides examples of attachment types with instructions for installing equipment in different configurations. The third section provides examples of anchors. The fourth section presents special cases. Step-by-step instructions and special precautions are given for each type of equipment, the method for installing the equipment, and the attachment type needed. The guide does not cover non-building structural framing required to elevate equipment above the floor.

FEMA 221, Collocation Impacts on the Vulnerability of Lifelines during Earthquakes with Applications to the Cajon Pass, California: Study Overview

This report summarizes a study of lifeline systems located along the Cajon Pass in southern California. The study included analyses of communication lifelines, electric power lifelines, fuel pipelines, and transportation lifelines. The report evaluates how collocation may influence each lifeline’s seismic vulnerability. A brief description of the screening tool developed during the study is provided.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA 225, Inventory of Lifelines in the Cajon Pass, California

This report provides an inventory of the major lifeline systems in the Cajon Pass. The report describes the earthquake and geologic analysis tools available to identify and define the level of seismic risk to those lifelines. The vulnerabilities occurring from the siting of multiple lifeline systems in confined and at risk areas due to their interactions from natural and manmade disasters are evaluated. Potential mitigation techniques for communication lifelines, electrical power lifelines, fuel pipelines, and transportation lifelines are identified. Detailed maps indicate lifeline locations. The report also discusses seismic hazards and predictive models for evaluating the damage potentials associated with the various seismic hazards.

There are two files in the compressed file, the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

Collocation Impacts on the Vulnerability of Lifelines during Earthquakes with Applications to the Cajon Pass, California (FEMA 226 1992)

This report presents a new analysis method to identify the increase in the seismic vulnerability of individual lifeline systems (communication systems, electric power systems, fuel pipelines, and transportation lifeline) due to their proximity to other lifelines in the Cajon Pass. The method calculates a parameter that can be used to adjust the damage state values for shaking as determined by the ATC 13 damage probability matrices. The primary objective of the study was to determine how the time to restore full service would be affected by the collocation of several types of lifelines in the same congested corridor. The new method is applied to the Cajon Pass lifelines. The design program, AutoCAD, is used to develop overlays of the lifeline routes with seismic and geologic information presented in the inventory report (FEMA 225).

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA P-1100 Volume 1: Vulnerability-Based Seismic Assessment and Retrofit of One- and Two-Family Dwellings

Improved seismic design and seismic retrofitting of vulnerable configurations will increase the probability that homes are available to provide shelter immediately following moderate to large seismic events. The purpose of this prestandard is provide a methodology to identify and retrofit specific known vulnerabilities in wood light-frame dwellings. Development of the assessment and retrofit provisions has included use of the best available seismic numerical modeling tools and engineering practices to assist in development of assessment methods and to identify retrofit criteria to best achieve targeted performance objectives. Use of the provisions is anticipated to improve earthquake performance but is not intended to prevent earthquake damage.

This pre-standard provides a stand-alone resource for assessment and retrofit, incorporating all provisions required for implementation, and includes figures containing prescriptive, pre-engineered structural drawings and commentary, as well as appendices that are expected to remain non-mandatory.

FEMA P-1100 Volume 2A- Plan Set for Crawlspace Dwellings

Improved seismic design and seismic retrofitting of vulnerable configurations will increase the probability that homes are available to provide shelter immediately following moderate to large seismic events. The purpose of this prestandard is provide a methodology to identify and retrofit specific known vulnerabilities in wood light-frame dwellings. Development of the assessment and retrofit provisions has included use of the best available seismic numerical modeling tools and engineering practices to assist in development of assessment methods and to identify retrofit criteria to best achieve targeted performance objectives. Use of the provisions is anticipated to improve earthquake performance but is not intended to prevent earthquake damage.

FEMA P-1100 Volume 2B: Plan Set for Living Space Over Garage Dwellings

Improved seismic design and seismic retrofitting of vulnerable configurations will increase the probability that homes are available to provide shelter immediately following moderate to large seismic events. The purpose of this prestandard is provide a methodology to identify and retrofit specific known vulnerabilities in wood light-frame dwellings. Development of the assessment and retrofit provisions has included use of the best available seismic numerical modeling tools and engineering practices to assist in development of assessment methods and to identify retrofit criteria to best achieve targeted performance objectives. Use of the provisions is anticipated to improve earthquake performance but is not intended to prevent earthquake damage.

FEMA P-1100 Volume 2C: Plan set for Masonry Chimneys

Improved seismic design and seismic retrofitting of vulnerable configurations will increase the probability that homes are available to provide shelter immediately following moderate to large seismic events. The purpose of this prestandard is provide a methodology to identify and retrofit specific known vulnerabilities in wood light-frame dwellings. Development of the assessment and retrofit provisions has included use of the best available seismic numerical modeling tools and engineering practices to assist in development of assessment methods and to identify retrofit criteria to best achieve targeted performance objectives. Use of the provisions is anticipated to improve earthquake performance but is not intended to prevent earthquake damage.

FEMA 68, Earthquake Insurance: A Public Policy Dilemma

This report examines issues and problems associated with the availability and procurement of earthquake insurance from the point of view of consumers and providers. The report outlines the provisions of earthquake insurance policies currently available to homeowners, businesses, local governments, and special districts. It examines the extent to which earthquake insurance is purchased and why it may be unattractive to consumers. The federal role in providing or promoting earthquake insurance is reviewed. Policies are recommended for the Federal Government and others to develop a more adequate system of coverage.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA 84, Societal Implications: Selected Readings

These selected readings provide participants in the building process at the local, State, and regional levels with information on the most significant societal implications of adopting new or improved seismic regulations for new buildings. Included are papers on the estimated impact of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions on design and construction costs, seismic hazards in various areas of the U.S., seismic safety codes, current seismic hazard mitigation practices and programs, and recent seismic safety policy research. The book also contains an extensive bibliography, a list of information sources, and a glossary of terms.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA 224, Seismic Vulnerability and Impact of Disruption of Lifelines in the Conterminous United States

This report provides a national overview of lifeline seismic vulnerability and the impact of disruption. Both site specific lifelines and extended lifeline networks are examined. Included is a review of electric, water, transportation, and emergency service systems. The vulnerability estimates and impacts are presented in terms of estimated direct damage losses and indirect economic losses. The report also presents hazard mitigation measures and their expected benefits and recommendations for future work.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA 202, Earthquake Resistant Construction of Electric Transmission and Telecommunication Facilities Serving the Federal Government

This report summarizes a National Institute of Standards and Technology study that reviewed measures implemented by federal agencies to protect electric power transmission and telecommunication lifelines against seismic hazards. The report examines the seismic vulnerability of these lifelines and discusses current standards and design criteria. Seismic retrofitting techniques for components and systems are reviewed, including the benefits of retrofitting versus gradual replacement. A summary of federal practices in the design of new facilities and the retrofit of existing facilities is included.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

FEMA 182, Landslide Loss Reduction: A Guide for State and Local Government Planning

The purpose of this guidebook is to provide a practical, politically feasible guide for State and local officials involved in landslide hazard mitigation. The guidebook presents concepts and a framework for the preparation of State and local landslide hazard mitigation plans. It outlines a basic methodology, provides information on available resources, and offers suggestions on the formation of an interdisciplinary mitigation planning partnership and a permanent State natural hazards mitigation organization. Individual States and local jurisdictions can adapt the suggestions in this book to meet their own unique needs.

The compressed file contains the PDF file and a text file for use with screen readers.

Home and Business Earthquake Safety and Mitigation FEMA P-909

This new training program on structural and non-structural earthquake mitigation has three components: a Train-the-Trainer course, a Home and Business Earthquake Safety and Mitigation course, and a Hands-On Interactive Mitigation Demonstration. The goal of the training is to create a cadre of trainers with the ability to provide basic knowledge on earthquakes and the simple steps that should be taken for earthquake mitigation in homes and businesses. On successful completion of the Train-the-Trainer course offered through the FEMA National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP), students will be certified to train others (see www.fema.gov/earthquake-training/national-earthquake-technical-assistance-program for more information).

FEMA P-2018 Seismic Evaluation of Older Concrete Buildings for Collapse Potential

This report, Seismic Evaluation of Older Concrete Buildings for Collapse Potential (FEMA P-2018), provides a simplified methodology for evaluating collapse resistance using simplified estimates of drift demand. The calculations have been intentionally simplified; however, the underlying criteria are based on probabilistic concepts and structural reliability theory. Development of the procedures included testing of the methodology by practicing engineers in several rounds of trial evaluations, and vetting of the methodology in a series of annual workshops. All of this was used to adjust and improve the methodology throughout the development process.

FEMA P-2012 Assessing Seismic Performance of Buildings with Configuration Irregularities

This guidance evaluates current building code triggers, the influence of structural irregularities on seismic building performance (in terms of collapse probability), and the effectiveness of relevant code provisions. The objective of the studies conducted under this project was to inform and improve U.S. codes and standards so that structures with configuration irregularities have a level of safety against collapse in an earthquake that is comparable to that for regular structures. The publication focuses primarily on design requirements for new buildings, with limited consideration of the treatment of irregularities for existing buildings.

NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. 2000 Edition. Part 2: Commentary

The Commentary provides general requirements, background information, and explanations for applying the analysis and design criteria in FEMA 368, similar to what might be incorporated in a code as administrative regulations.

Policy Guide to Steel Moment-Frame Construction (FEMA-P-354)

This guide addresses the social, economic, and political issues related to the earthquake performance of steel moment-frame buildings. Written for building owners, local community officials, and other non-technical audiences, this guide also discusses the relative costs and benefits of implementing the design criteria recommended in FEMA 350 through FEMA 353.

Global Topics Report on the Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA-P-357)

This report provides a narrative discussion and record of the technical changes made to the NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 273) to develop the Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 356). Included is a brief discussion of new concepts introduced to the engineering profession in the original Guidelines and Commentary (FEMA 274).

Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings

This publication supersedes FEMA 273 and 274 and converts these publications into mandatory prestandard language. This Prestandard serves as a nationally applicable tool for design professionals, code officials, and building owners undertaking the seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings. The publication contains two parts.The Provisions include technical requirements for seismic rehabilitation. The Commentary explains the Provisions. Chapters include requirements; analysis procedures; foundations and geologic site hazards; steel; concrete; masonry; wood and light metal framing; seismic isolation and energy dissipation; simplified rehabilitation; architectural, mechanical, and electrical components; and use of this Prestandard for risk mitigation programs. (Please note that FEMA 356 has been superseded by American Society of Civil Engineers [ASCE] 41, Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.)

Policy Guide to Steel Moment-Frame Construction (FEMA-P-354)

This guide addresses the social, economic, and political issues related to the earthquake performance of steel moment-frame buildings. Written for building owners, local community officials, and other non-technical audiences, this guide also discusses the relative costs and benefits of implementing the design criteria recommended in FEMA 350 through FEMA 353.

FEMA 159, Tremor Troop: Earthquakes – A Teacher's Package for K-6. Revised Edition

This teacher’s package for grades K-6 provides ready-to-use, hands-on activities for students and teachers on the science of earthquakes and earthquake safety. This edition contains assessments throughout the units, matrices linking activities to the National Science Education Standards, and a new glossary. Four of the five units are divided into levels by grades: Level 1, for grades K-2; Level 2, for grades 3-4; and Level 3, for grades 5-6. The lessons introduce how earthquakes are defined, why and where earthquakes occur, the physical results of earthquakes, and how earthquakes are measured. The fifth and final unit addresses earthquake safety and survival and includes activities for students in all grades K-6. At the end of each unit, ready-toreproduce masters are provided for classroom use.

Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel Moment-Frame Buildings (FEMA-P-350)

This resource document (FEMA 350) for organizations engaged in the development of building codes and standards provides recommended guidelines for the design and construction of steel moment frame buildings and alternative performance-based design criteria. It supplements the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and other Structures. A series of pre-qualified connection details, as well as a detailed procedure for performance evaluation, is included.

Recommended Seismic Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing Welded Steel Moment-Frame Buildings (FEMA-P-351)

This publication provides recommended methods for evaluating the probable performance of existing steel moment-frame buildings in future earthquakes. It presents guidelines on how to retrofit these buildings for improved performance, a simplified procedure for estimating the probable postearthquake repair costs, and methods for developing building-specific vulnerability and loss functions for steel moment-frame buildings.

Recommended Postearthquake Evaluation and Repair Criteria for Welded Steel Moment-Frame Buildings (FEMA-P-352)

This report provides recommendations for performing inspections to detect damage in steel moment-frame buildings following an earthquake; evaluating the damaged buildings’ safety in a postearthquake environment; and repairing damaged buildings. Chapters cover inspection and classification of damage; preliminary postearthquake assessment; detailed postearthquake evaluations; and postearthquake repair. The appendices include procedures for performance evaluation; sample placards that may be used to post buildings following preliminary postearthquake evaluations; and sample inspection forms that may be used to record damage detected in beam-column connections as part of a detailed postearthquake inspection program.

Recommended Specifications and Quality Assurance Guidelines for Steel Moment-Frame Construction for Seismic Applications (FEMA-P-353)

This two-part publication provides recommended specifications for the fabrication and erection of steel moment-frames for seismic applications. Part One covers recommended specifications, including information on products; execution; welded joint and fabrication details; and quality control and assurance. Part Two outlines quality assurance guidelines; contractor qualifications and quality tasks; quality assurance agency qualifications and quality assurance tasks; and recommended methods for determining whether structural steel materials, welded joints, and bolted joints meet the applicable standards. The recommended design criteria contained in FEMA 350, FEMA 351, and FEMA 352 are based on the standards contained in this document.

The Repair of Earthquake Damaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings (FEMA-P-308)

This document provides practical guidance for the repair and upgrade of earthquake-damaged concrete and masonry wall buildings. Target audiences include design engineers, building owners and officials, insurance adjusters, and government agencies. The publication contains sections on performance-based repair design, repair technologies, categories of repair, and nonstructural considerations. The last section includes repair guides, which provide outline specifications for typical repair procedures.

Planning for Seismic Rehabilitation: Societal Issues (FEMA-P-275)

This publication provides users with an understanding of the social and public policy issues that may accompany seismic rehabilitation, such as demographic, social, and economic impacts; historic property restrictions; resident dislocations; and business interruptions. The publication presents a four-step decision process to assist local officials, private owners, and design professionals in determining the need for rehabilitation. It includes an “escalation ladder” to assist in understanding the degree of conflict that might be generated and the implications of choosing particular strategies.

Evaluation of Earthquake Damaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings: Basic Procedures Manual (FEMA-P-306)

This document provides practical criteria and guidance for evaluating earthquake damage to concrete and masonry wall buildings. Component Damage Classification Guides and Test and Investigation Guides are included. Detailed drawings accompany the text.

Evaluation of Earthquake Damaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings: Technical Resources (FEMA-P-307)

This document provides background and theoretical information to be used in conjunction with FEMA 306. Analytical and experimental findings are included, as well as information on the Component Damage Classification Guides.

Seismic Sleuths: Earthquakes—A Teacher's Package for Grades 7-12 (FEMA-P-253)

his package provides middle and high school teachers with information about the causes and effects of earthquakes. Activity sheets for students and background materials for teachers are provided in each of the volume’s six units. The units assess students’ knowledge about earthquakes and provide information about preparedness and emergency management; discuss the causes of earthquakes, including crustal stresses and the earth’s structure, and their effects; present information on seismic waves and the development of seismology and instruments used to measure an earthquake’s magnitude; explain the effects of earthquakes on buildings and earthquake-resistant design techniques; and discuss earthquake preparedness and the reactions of different populations to historical earthquakes. The last unit provides a variety of summary and assessment activities and additional resources.

Typical Costs for Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. Volume 2: Supporting Documentation. Second Edition (FEMA-P-157)

This document is a companion volume to FEMA 156. The document provides an in-depth discussion of the approaches and methodology that were used in developing the second edition of FEMA 156.

Last updated Aug 4, 2020

Would you like to take a brief survey regarding your experience with fema.gov?